Table 1

Difference-in-differences estimates of the impact of benefits expansion in insurance coverage for Green Card on annualised out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures (full sample, in Turkish Lira)

OutcomeTreatment effect
Doctor visit−5.316 (5.868) −4.560 (5.868)
Dentist −11.496*** (4.404) −9.408** (4.332)
Diagnostic −8.592** (4.944) −7.152* (4.908)
Household pharmaceutical medical spending −13.500** (6.756)−12.756** (6.816)
Household total medical expenditures−64.752*** (17.004) −58.956*** (17.052)
Compare declines above with:
Mean total household medical spending178.416
Total decline as per cent of total per-household medical spending33
X variablesNoYes
Observations51 42551 425
  • Authors’ analysis of Turkey Household Budget Surveys: 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006. Robust SEs are in parentheses. *10% **5%, ***1% in a one-tailed t-test. Difference-in-differences estimates are in Turkish Lira adjusted for inflation. Treatment subject is Green Card holders and comparison subjects are social insurance, uninsured (people reporting not having any form of insurance or Green Card coverage) and privately insured (includes other insurances). Results are based on Eq. (1) and are yearly. Demographic and socioeconomic controls include household head (HH) marital status, HH gender, fraction of kids, fraction of elderly, fraction of female in the household, urban, HH size, HH age, HH age squared, HH occupation and dummies for insurance groups. We also control for year fixed effects in each model. Results are for 2003 through 2006; 2005 is the threshold.