Table 1

PMM intervention and outcomes included in the EGM

InterventionsOutcomes
Implementation strategies at individual provider levelIn-service training; continuous education; remindersProvider and managerial outputs and outcomesWorkload; work morale; stress, burnout and sick leave; staff turnover; provider knowledge; change in attitudes, beliefs, perceptions; skills and competencies
Implementation strategies at organisational levelSupervision; clinical incident reporting; local opinion leaders; continuous quality improvement; clinical practice guidelinesOrganisational outcomesQuality of care process improvement; adherence to recommended practice or guidelines; patient satisfaction; perceived quality of care; changes in organisational culture
Accountability arrangementsAudit and feedback (at provider or organisational levels); public release of performance information; social accountabilityPatient outcomesHealth behaviours (adherence by patients to treatment or care plans, and health-seeking behaviours); health status outcomes (physical health, or psychological and psychosocial outcomes)
Financial arrangementsPerformance-based financing (at provider or organisational levels)Health outcomes at population levelUtilisation of services; service or intervention coverage; access to primary care services; adverse health effects or harm
Social and equity outcomesCommunity participation; equity effects; unintended outcomes
  • EGM, evidence gap map; PMM, performance measurement and management.