Table 2

Thirty-six research questions for PHC organisation rated for importance

Organisation/models of careSumMean
1.How can family physicians be supported to provide comprehensive community-based care instead of resources being directed into vertical programmes?2903.58
2.What are the drivers for PHC teams to deliver high-quality services (intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as pay, status, career pathway/promotion etc)?2863.53
3.How can education and training support the PHC workforce to deliver the range of services that address priority health needs of the community?2843.51
4.How does PHC impact the health indicators of the countries? What are these indicators? How are they measured? How do they compare between countries?2843.51
5.What are the factors that facilitate recruitment and retention of a PHC workforce in underserved community settings?2803.46
6.What are the best strategies to implement and monitor best practice in PHC?2803.46
7.Are the services and scope of practice of PHC aligned with people's health needs, considering variations in population needs, resources and geography, and what is the evidence on which the range of services/scope of care provided should be decided?2793.44
8.What strategies can be undertaken to ensure quality in the delivery of PHC service to patients (eg, training/research/quality control)?2793.44
9.What are the factors or incentives that can improve distribution of PHC workforce or equity of accessing PHC services?2773.42
10.How can different stakeholders (eg, policy-makers, health system managers, health workforce organisations, academic institutions and communities) support and assist the PHC workforce and successful team functioning?2773.42
11.How can PHC services be integrated with other community-based health and social services?2763.41
12.What are the factors to be considered and negotiated for successful referral from primary to secondary care and back?2753.40
13.What PHC models of care provision in resourced limited environments provide the highest impact?2743.38
14.How should care be horizontally integrated and coordinated among the multidisciplinary PHC team?2733.37
15.What factors should determine the composition of the PHC team and what professionals should the team include as a minimum?2703.33
16.What are the essential features to ensure adequate coordination and collaboration among PHC team members to address the priority health concerns of the population they serve?2703.33
17.What procedures and protocols are required to ensure seamless transitions and transfers occur when required to and from primary and secondary care? What role can IT play in this?2693.32
18.What is the best leadership model for PHC? Who should lead the PHC delivery team where there is no physician?2683.31
19.How can different stakeholders (eg, health system managers, health workforce members, academic institutions and communities) advise policy-makers on how to ensure that PHC services address population health needs?2683.31
20.What can be done to prioritise limited resources and what alternatives including telemedicine can assist in providing PHC to under-resourced areas?2643.26
21.What tools and processes are best for assessing the match between PHC team structure and function and patient/community needs?2633.25
22.What is the effective panel (patient population) size for provision of effective, comprehensive PHC? How does this differ depending on worker type, PHC team composition and location (eg, urban vs rural)?2593.20
23.How does a PHC team establish practice priorities, what essential services need to be provided and decide what is out of scope?2553.15
24.Are there differences in the ability to access PHC based on the region of the country, and between rural and urban?2543.14
25.What are the most useful ways of delineating PHC services and hospital services in a generalist district health system model?2533.12
26.What do patients consider should be the basic/essential scope of practice for PHC team?2523.11
27.What role is there for specialists to see patients in community settings and for PHC workers including family physicians to work in secondary and tertiary settings?2523.11
28.Why is there a significant number of the populace not able or willing to access services in PHC?2513.10
29.What role is there for community members guide the development and delivery of public and private community-based PHC services and to contribute to government policy which supports these services?2473.05
30.What are the most effective and efficient means of tracking of where PHC workers practice after completing training in LMICs?2433.00
31.How do government policies impact migration (import or export) of PHC physicians in LMICs?2422.99
32.How can traditional healers be accommodated within a PHC system?2382.94
33.What are the legal barriers and enablers that most inhibit and facilitate access to PHC services?2342.89
34.Is there a role for high school graduates to work in PHC teams as community workers if physicians and other trained clinicians are not available, particularly in rural areas, and what would a standardised skill set for these health workers be?2332.88
35.How do different PHC terminologies in LMIC and HIC countries influence comparative international research outcomes?2312.85
36.Do centres of excellence in key urban areas focus predominantly on secondary and tertiary services in your country? Are workers sent to rural and PHC settings as a form of disciplinary action?2232.75
  • Maximum possible score=336 (if all panellists rated the question very important).

  • LIC, low-income country; LMIC, low-income and middle-income country; PHC, primary healthcare.