Table 3

Country-specific questions developed for the top four prioritised questions

CountryResearch questionAimsMethodsTeam
BrazilWhat are the factors to be considered and negotiated for successful referral from primary to secondary care and back in Brazil?
  1. To identify factors that influence referral between primary and secondary care in Brazilian context

  2. To test and develop strategies to improve communication between primary and secondary care within the main systems of referral in Brazil

Involve all five national health regions, target populations, family physicians and nurse practitioners; PHC and hospital workers; municipal health managers
Phase 1 Online national questionnaire and semistructured interviews
Phase 2 Regional case studies in eight cities (in four regions) of successful referral to identify barriers and best practice. Methods include therapeutic inventory, focus groups
Phase 3 Using participatory methodology, develop intervention plans in each region
Assist Prof Sandro Rodrigues Batista (lead)
Assoc Prof Sandra Fortes
Adjunct Prof Clara Aleida Prada Sanabria
Assist Prof Rita De Cassia Nascimento
Prof Fernanda K Melchior Silva Pinto
Prof João Mazzoncini De Azevedo Marques
Prof Tiago Sarti
Prof Leonardo Moscovici
MalaysiaHow can the public and private sectors work more collaboratively to improve and integrate PHC coverage and prevent segmentation of services in Malaysia?
  1. To determine the perception and experience of providing care in their own sector of public and private primary care practitioners, the constraints they identify and the access to services in the other sector to which they would like to have access

  2. To determine the mechanisms used by people in the community to decide whether to access public or private primary care services when unwell

Phase 1 Explore perception and experience of public and private primary care practitioners on constraints and access to services that they wish they could have to the other sector using mixed qualitative and quantitative method approach
Phase 2 Nationwide survey of public physicians, pharmacists, public health physicians and health directors, and private family physicians to identify, confirm and estimate degree of healthcare services segmentation
Prof Dr Sherina Mohd Sidik (lead)
Assoc Prof Dr Chew Boon How
Assoc Prof Dr Ambigga Devi Krishnapillai
Dr Aida Jaafar
Dr Maizatullifah Miskan
Dr Hasliza Abu Hassan
Dr Ng Kien Keat
Assoc Prof Dr Aznida Firzah Abdul Aziz
Assoc Prof Dr Noor Azimah Muhammad
Dr Ummavathy Periasamy
Dr Muhambigai Perumal Samy
Vigneswary Perumal Samy
NigeriaHow can different stakeholders support and assist the primary healthcare workforce and successful team functioning in Nigeria?
  1. To assess perceptions, knowledge to practice gap and examine experiences of PHC stakeholders with the use of proven approaches for support and assistance for PHC workforce and PHC team functioning in Nigeria

  2. To incorporate the information generated from perceptions and knowledge to practice gap assessment into a family physician-led Supportive Supervisory Module and test its effectiveness for supportive supervision in 8 PHC centres in 2 of the 36 States in Nigeria

Qualitative methods to explore and examine experiences and interpret perceptions of PHC stakeholders with the use of proven approaches for support and assistance of PHC workforce and PHC team functioning
Quasi-experimental design to test use of a family physician-led supportive supervision module and patient care support to improve PHC team functioning and provider competency in clinical case management in 4 PHC centres in four States in Nigeria
Dr Aboi JK Madaki (lead)
Prof Udonwa Ndifreke
Dr Akin Moses
Dr Irabor Achiaka
South AfricaHow should care be horizontally integrated and coordinated among the multidisciplinary primary healthcare team in South Africa?
  1. Describe the multidisciplinary team composition for community practice in South Africa

  2. Compare outcomes of care in all sites of interest and related controls

  3. Implementation outcomes such as feasibility, cost, reach and accept

Describe the multidisciplinary team composition for community practice
Develop 4–6 new community practices within existing community health centres using community oriented primary care principles: key stakeholders engaged, CHWs deployed into defined population served, practice orientation to community, and targeted health promotion in 4–6 urban–rural sites identified by each Department of Family Medicine
Use existing, validated practice evaluation tools (mixed method) to assess differences in outcomes relative matched practices in the same communities to discern important differences in team composition
Prof Shabir Moosa (lead)
The 8 Departments of Family Medicine in South Africa will be approached to join this project as partners
  • CHW, community health worker; PHC, primary healthcare.