Table 2

Ranked list of research questions across study countries

Research questionsMeanSD
What are the minimum sets of standardised and applicable quality and patient safety indicators to monitor PHC performance at national and regional levels?13.262.18
What risk and safety management approaches can be adopted to enhance patient safety in primary healthcare?13.212.20
What regulatory and administrative measures can be implemented to promote rational drug prescribing in primary healthcare?13.092.23
What are the most effective methods for training clinicians in quality improvement?13.002.22
What strategies are effective in promoting equitable access to primary healthcare among the most vulnerable population?12.935.43
Which strategies are effective in promoting multisectoral actions on non-communicable diseases prevention and control?12.662.02
What is the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of clinical and computerised decision support system for management of chronic diseases in primary healthcare?12.552.44
What is the impact of primary healthcare accreditation on clinical outcomes?12.302.77
Which recruitment and retention strategies are effective in addressing equitable distribution of health workers, improving provider competency and enhancing satisfaction with primary healthcare?12.272.27
How can the design of health information systems be strengthened in supporting primary healthcare performance?12.262.68
What are the minimum system needs for effective reporting of medical errors in primary healthcare settings?12.212.45
What measures can be implemented to enhance professional development and team work in primary healthcare?12.022.73
What is the impact of pay for performance schemes on provider competency and clinical outcomes in primary healthcare settings?11.932.56
What is the impact of public reporting on provider competency, patient experience of care, organisational performance and clinical outcomes?11.822.45
What changes are needed to ensure newly graduated primary healthcare workers are competent?11.773.07
What are the key factors that influence the design of an effective pay for performance system in primary healthcare?11.642.62
What is the impact of community participation in primary healthcare on access, equity, patient experience of care and clinical outcomes?11.602.78
How can task shifting be optimised to address healthcare worker shortages and skill mix imbalances in primary healthcare?11.562.92
What are the barriers and facilitators to effective implementation of nurse-led care in primary healthcare settings?11.553.20
What are the barriers and facilitators to the integration of medical and social care provision, with a particular focus on youth-friendly services and programmers into primary healthcare?11.553.10
What are the factors that influence inter-professional team work in primary healthcare settings?11.482.59
What strategies are effective in ensuring proper integration of community and citizen engagements in primary healthcare planning and delivery?11.472.90
What are the implications of decentralisation on health system arrangement (governance, financing and delivery arrangements)?11.453.17
What are the individual competencies for effective leadership/management at PHC facility levels?11.393.08
What are the barriers and facilitators to implement decentralisation at the levels of the Ministry of Health and governorates?11.393.58
How to successfully implement decentralisation throughout the whole health system (including effective strategies and tools)?11.353.47
How does the adoption of public scorecard affect the performance of primary healthcare professionals?11.332.77
What is the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ‘health apps’/mHealth interventions in improving health outcomes in primary healthcare?11.142.73
What are the institutional capacities and human resources needs in the decentralised setting?11.093.44
What care models are effective in integrating adolescent health needs into primary healthcare services?11.092.79
What is the impact of multisource feedback (or 360° evaluation) on provider competence, patient–provider interactions and clinical outcomes?10.982.54
What is the impact of different leadership styles on PHC quality measures?10.613.03
What is the perception of patients regarding substitution of physicians by nurses in primary healthcare settings?9.983.42
How can community members be empowered to monitor performance of primary care providers or facilities?9.953.01
  • PHC, primary healthcare.