Table 1

Research questions for financing rated for importance

1.What are the barriers to implementing best practice in PHC?2853.52
2.When resources are limited, where/how is it most cost-effective to use the available funds for the greatest health outcomes in PHC?2803.46
3.What are the best practices in PHC and how can they be scaled up?2793.44
4.What are the resources essential to deliver quality PHC services?2743.38
5.What is the ideal proportion of the total healthcare budget that guarantees the development of quality PHC?2723.36
6.What is the most appropriate payment system to increase access and availability of quality PHC?2703.33
7.How much of the PHC budget should be allocated for preventable diseases (eg, NCDs, vaccination, cancer screening)?2703.33
8.Does everyone have access to quality PHC that he/she needs?2673.30
9.What effective funding models exist for delivering universal PHC coverage in LMICs?2663.28
10.What mechanisms have been found to be effective in persuading governments to invest in PHC?2633.25
11.How do you maintain accountability for safety and/or quality in PHC while scaling up?2613.22
12.Do accreditation systems (eg, of vocational training, of practices) improve quality of patient care?2603.21
13.How can the public and private sectors work more collaboratively to improve and integrate PHC coverage and prevent segmentation of the services?2583.19
14.What percentage of public healthcare spending is dedicated to PHC in different LMIC countries?2583.19
15.What advances have been made in the last 10 years to improve PHC and quality in the public and private sectors?2573.17
16.Does the government have policies/legal provisions to insure quality and safety of PHC?2573.17
17.Does the allocation of resources follow a defined pattern that considers social determinants in health in PHC?2563.16
18.What incentives and rewards are required to ensure that the PHC private sector contributes to successful comprehensive primary healthcare?2553.15
19.How do you communicate clearly the risks and benefits of PHC versus other high-cost subspecialty care?2523.11
20.Are quality measurements currently used to allocate resources in PHC?2473.05
21.How do PHC facilities clearly communicate their funding needs through a transparent, accountable system?2463.04
22.What are the appropriate outcomes to assess the effectiveness of different governance models for both the PHC public and private sectors?2443.01
23.Why, and when, should PHC services be contracted out by ministries of health and will this lead to improvements in quality of care and better management of scarce resources?2412.98
24.What are the similarities in PHC between the public and private networks in different HIC and LMIC countries?2362.91
25.What is the role of NGOs in the PHC system?2352.90
26.How do the PHC public and private sectors learn from each other to improve quality?2332.88
27.What is the role of the private sector in PHC services?2322.86
28.How does the quality and safety of the implementation of PHC affect having differences in the budget in the private and public sectors?2322.86
29.Is the PHC system well funded through taxation (leading to subsidised payments) or via co-payments determined by insurance services?2302.84
30.How does regulation of the PHC private sector compare with public sector regulation by regulatory bodies?2252.78
31.Are taxes on products with harmful effects, such as alcohol and tobacco, used to try to increase health system funding?2162.67
  • HIC, high-income country; LMICs, low- and middle-income countries; NCDs, noncommunicable diseases; NGOs, non-governmental organisations; PHC, primary healthcare.