Table 2

PMM strategies addressed in the literature between 2000 and 2018: regional distribution, study designs, intervention strategies and outcomes

Sub-Saharan Africa
(col. %)
South Asia
(col. %)
East Asia and Pacific
(col. %)
Latin America and Caribbean (col. %)Middle East and North Africa
(col. %)
Impact evaluations56191195
Study designs
Controlled before and after1915193813
Other designs per protocol846824
PMM strategies and interventions
1. Implementation strategies
 In-service and continuing education4150476963
 Continuous quality improvement5
2. Accountability arrangements
 Social accountability8
 Public release of performance information24
 Audit and feedback28
3. Financial arrangements
 Performance-based financing and incentives274122325
 Provider outputs and outcomes3254612856
 Organisational outcomes1731111%11%
 Patient outcomes144322%33%
 Health outcomes at population level332839%
 Social and equity outcomes4
  • PMM, performance measurement and management; RCT, randomised controlled trial.