Table 1

Taxonomy of programme strategies

Type of strategyStrategyDefinition
Community strategies: strategies with a primary focus on communities and community organisations, with a particular focus on patientsCommunity awareness and linkage to careProgrammes that provide communities and patients with health-related information on disease prevention and treatment, or improve links between patients and the healthcare system.
System strategies:
strategies with a primary focus on aspects of the health system that affect availability and access to medicines.
Health service strengtheningProgramme designed to improve the availability, affordability and quality of health services. Common activities include planning, training, infrastructure, technology, management or funding activities.
Health service deliveryProgrammes designed to deliver health services directly to patients. Common activities include screening, diagnosis, treatment and retention.
Supply chainProgrammes designed to improve medicine supply chains, to improve availability and lower costs. Common activities include planning, training, infrastructure, technology, management or funding activities.
FinancingProgrammes designed to improve health financing systems and reduce catastrophic health expenditure. Common activities include planning, training, infrastructure, technology, management or funding activities.
Regulation and legislationProgrammes designed to improve and harmonise pharmaceutical regulatory systems, improve government coverage of and access to treatments and/or improve in-country regulatory processes. Common activities include advocacy, training, infrastructure, technology, management or funding activities.
Production strategies: strategies with a primary focus on increasing the production of medicines.ManufacturingProgrammes designed to build capacity for medicine production. Common activities include planning, training, infrastructure, technology or funding activities.
Product development researchProgrammes designed to support product (eg, drugs, devices) development research through planning, training, infrastructure, technology or funding activities. Relevant research areas include bench science, preclinical and clinical trials and postmarketing monitoring.
Licensing agreementsProgrammes designed to facilitate the manufacture, importation, sale or use of medicines through legally binding relationships including voluntary licensing agreements and technology sharing.
Price strategy:
strategies with a primary focus on reducing the price of medicines.
Price schemeProgrammes designed to increase the affordability of medicines for individuals and healthcare systems through a change in the price via subsidies or other means (excluding donations).
Medicine donationProgrammes designed to increase the availability and/or affordability of medicines through direct donation of medicines, and other healthcare products, to countries or health institutions or non-governmental organisations. Does not include compassionate access programmes.