Table 5

Country-level factors associated with infant and under-five mortality rates in Ghana using penalised regression

Embedded Image penalisation: L
Rigorous theory-driven penalisation for LASSO using covariate dependent penalty levelRigorous theory-driven penalisation for square root LASSO using covariate dependent penalty levelten folds cross-validation LASSOLASSO based on extended Bayesian information criteria
Country-level factors influencing infant-five mortality rate in Ghana
 Internet use−0.15−0.10−0.10
 Female labour force participation−9.31−7.88−3.73−4.42
 Birth rate2.30
 Government effectiveness0.710.79
 Access to electricity−0.01
 Access to drinking water-rural−0.80−0.77
 Government effectiveness0.71
 Prevalence of HIV0.92
 Urban Population−0.45−0.49
 Government expenditure on education−0.03−0.01
Country-level factors influencing the under-five mortality rate in Ghana
 Internet use−0.23−0.07−0.18
 Female labour force participation−17.54−14.56−16.29−6.53
 Birth rate4.382.47
 Government effectiveness0.861.14
 Access to electricity−0.01
 Access to drinking water-rural−1.41
 Government effectiveness1.14
 Prevalence of HIV1.62
 Urban population−0.79
 Government expenditure on education−0.04
  • Parameter estimates were based on 25 selected country-level covariates. Details of the covariates studied can be found in online supplementary S8.

  • LASSO, Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator.