Table 1

Overview of included studies

#StudyStudy designStudy populationWASH intervention componentOutcomesReduction in HCAI
aKorbkitjaroen et al (2011)55Cluster randomised control trialAdult patients
(Mean age=60)
Hand hygiene education+sterilisation of skin and equipmentOverall HCAIs
Catheter associated-urinary tract infections
Ventilator-associated pneumonia
Catheter associated-bloodstream infections
bChen et al
(2015)56
Cohort studyNeonates (preterm)
Born <33 weeks gestational age
(Mean age=2 days)
Hand hygiene educationInvasive Candida infections
cRaza and Avan (2013)Matched case-control studyNeonates
(Ages not reported)
Clean care delivery kits (soap, spirit for clean cord care, sterile equipment)Neonatal tetanus infection
  • HCAI, healthcare-associated infection; WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene.