Table 2

Summary of before-after studies

#StudyWASH intervention componentWASH only/combined interventionReduction in any HCAI
1Abramczyk,
2011
Education on catheter hub disinfectionCombined
2Allegranzi,
2018
Education on hand hygiene and aseptic patient-care techniques. Provision of antiseptic soaps to patientsCombined
3Alp,
2014
Education on hand hygiene. Provision of hand basins, alcohol-based hand rub, and antiseptic soap. Daily chlorhexidine bathing of patientsCombined
4Alvarez-Moreno, 2016Education on hand hygiene and aseptic techniquesCombined
5Apisarnthanarak, 2014Education on hand hygiene. Disinfection of environment, patient bathing and oral hygiene with chlorhexidineCombined
6Apisarnthanarak, 2010Education on hand hygiene and aseptic techniques. Provision of alcohol-based hand rub dispensersCombined
7Azab,
2015
Education on hand hygiene. Sterilisation of equipment and antiseptic oral cleaning of patientsCombined
8Guanche-Garcell, 2013Education on hand hygiene. Antiseptic oral cleaning of patients. Hand hygiene compliance monitoringCombined
9Jagi,
2013
Education on hand hygiene. Provision of chlorhexidine for skin preparation. Sterilisation of medical equipmentCombined
10Kurlat,
1998
Education on hand hygiene and sterilisationCombined
11Leblebicioglu, 2013Education on hand hygiene. Disinfection of skin and equipmentCombined
12Leblebicioglu, 2013Education on hand hygiene. Disinfection of skin and equipment. Daily bathing with chlorhexidineCombined
13Leblebicioglu, 2013Education on hand hygiene. Disinfection of skin and equipment. Patient oral care with antiseptic solutionCombined
14Lenz,
2018
Education on hand hygieneCombined
15Marra,
2010
Education on hand hygiene. Disinfection of skin and equipment. Hand hygiene compliance monitoringCombined
16Mehta,
2013
Education on hand hygiene. Antiseptic oral cleaning of patientsCombined
17Murni,
2015
Education on hand hygieneCombined
18Navoa,
2013
Education on hand hygiene. Sterilisation of skin and equipmentCombined
19Ng Y.Y,
2015
Education on hand hygiene and aseptic techniquesWASH only
20Ogwang,
2013
Education on hand hygiene. Skin and equipment disinfectionCombined
21Rosenthal,
2006
Education on hand hygieneCombined
22Rosenthal,
2005
Education on hand hygieneWASH only
23Rosenthal,
2012
Education on hand hygiene. Disinfection of skin and equipmentCombined
24Rosenthal,
2012
Education on hand hygiene. Disinfection of skin and equipmentCombined
25Von Dolinger de Brito, 2007Provision of sinks, automated taps, paper towels and chlorhexidine dispensers for hand cleaningCombined
26Zhou,
2015
Education on hand hygiene and sterile techniques. Easily accessible positioning of handwashing and hand disinfection facilitiesCombined
27Zhou,
2013
Education on hand hygiene and waste segregation (separating normal and infectious waste). Ventilator disinfectionCombined
  • HCAI, healthcare-associated infection; WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene.