Table 3

Regression results for vitamin A coverage

Dependent variable
Vitamin A coverage (%)
BaseOLSFEFE2wFE2w+RERE2w+WBWB+
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)
Number of interventions−0.76 (0.55)−0.77* (0.45)−0.38 (0.49)−0.95* (0.50)−0.84* (0.44)−0.42 (0.57)−0.79 (0.61)
Log government health expenditure per capita (IntUS$)−1.34−2.34* (1.35)
Log external health expenditure per capita (IntUS$)4.613.58** (1.79)
Log total population<5 years−32.231.26 (1.09)
Average nurse and midwife density−0.01 (0.06)−0.003 (0.07)
Average number of interventions (country)−1.17 (1.18)−3.38*** (1.31)
Difference from average number of interventions (country)−0.73 (0.48)−0.56 (0.55)
Average log government health expenditure per capita−3.46** (1.53)
Difference from average log government health expenditure per capita1.45 (3.74)
Average log external health expenditure per capita2.20 (1.95)
Difference from average log external health expenditure per capita6.32*** (2.00)
Average log total population<5 years1.18 (1.01)
Difference from average log total population<5 years−5.47 (17.45)
Constant85.97*** (2.70)88.1684.62*** (2.80)69.79*** (19.08)87.54*** (5.12)88.47*** (17.44)
Observations574574574574539574431574430
R20.010.010.0020.010.030.110.050.010.11
Adjusted R20.0040.004−0.14−0.16−0.150.110.040.0040.09
F statistic−5.253.53* (df=1; 572)1.12 (df=1; 500)6.00** (df=1; 489)3.03** (df=4; 455)61.68***21.86***−4.6448.14***
  • Standard errors are robust to heteroscedasticity and computed using the HC3 estimator.

  • *P<0.1; **p<0.05; ***p<0.01.

  • Base, panel random effects model with country and time effects;FE, fixed effects model with country effects;FE2w, fixed effects model with country and time effects;FE2w+, FE2w model with additional predictors;OLS, pooled ordinary least squares model;RE, random effects model with country effects;RE2w+, Base model with additional predictors;WB, random effects model using the within-between estimator; WB+, WB model with additional predictors.