Dependent variable | |||||||||

Vitamin A coverage (%) | |||||||||

Base | OLS | FE | FE2w | FE2w+ | RE | RE2w+ | WB | WB+ | |

(1) | (2) | (3) | (4) | (5) | (6) | (7) | (8) | (9) | |

Number of interventions | −0.76 (0.55) | −0.77* (0.45) | −0.38 (0.49) | −0.95* (0.50) | −0.84* (0.44) | −0.42 (0.57) | −0.79 (0.61) | ||

Log government health expenditure per capita (IntUS$) | −1.34 | −2.34* (1.35) | |||||||

Log external health expenditure per capita (IntUS$) | 4.61 | 3.58** (1.79) | |||||||

Log total population<5 years | −32.23 | 1.26 (1.09) | |||||||

Average nurse and midwife density | −0.01 (0.06) | −0.003 (0.07) | |||||||

Average number of interventions (country) | −1.17 (1.18) | −3.38*** (1.31) | |||||||

Difference from average number of interventions (country) | −0.73 (0.48) | −0.56 (0.55) | |||||||

Average log government health expenditure per capita | −3.46** (1.53) | ||||||||

Difference from average log government health expenditure per capita | 1.45 (3.74) | ||||||||

Average log external health expenditure per capita | 2.20 (1.95) | ||||||||

Difference from average log external health expenditure per capita | 6.32*** (2.00) | ||||||||

Average log total population<5 years | 1.18 (1.01) | ||||||||

Difference from average log total population<5 years | −5.47 (17.45) | ||||||||

Constant | 85.97*** (2.70) | 88.16 | 84.62*** (2.80) | 69.79*** (19.08) | 87.54*** (5.12) | 88.47*** (17.44) | |||

Observations | 574 | 574 | 574 | 574 | 539 | 574 | 431 | 574 | 430 |

R^{2} | 0.01 | 0.01 | 0.002 | 0.01 | 0.03 | 0.11 | 0.05 | 0.01 | 0.11 |

Adjusted R^{2} | 0.004 | 0.004 | −0.14 | −0.16 | −0.15 | 0.11 | 0.04 | 0.004 | 0.09 |

F statistic | −5.25 | 3.53* (df=1; 572) | 1.12 (df=1; 500) | 6.00** (df=1; 489) | 3.03** (df=4; 455) | 61.68*** | 21.86*** | −4.64 | 48.14*** |

Standard errors are robust to heteroscedasticity and computed using the HC3 estimator.

*P<0.1; **p<0.05; ***p<0.01.

Base, panel random effects model with country and time effects;FE, fixed effects model with country effects;FE2w, fixed effects model with country and time effects;FE2w+, FE2w model with additional predictors;OLS, pooled ordinary least squares model;RE, random effects model with country effects;RE2w+, Base model with additional predictors;WB, random effects model using the within-between estimator; WB+, WB model with additional predictors.