Table 2

Schedule of community stakeholder workshops for village A*

Work-shopVillagesWeekly meeting topicsTool/techniqueDescription
1A1Topic selectionRanking and votingTo identify priority health topic of relevance to the community. A list of health priorities was developed during the discussion, after which participants voted for the topics of highest relevance using adhesive stickers. The voting progressed through two rounds with discussion and agreement at the end.
2A1, A2Problems and causesProblem treeTo unpack/understand nominated topics from different perspectives. Through facilitated discussions using a tree diagram visible to all, participants identified cause-and-effect relationships at various levels from root (tree roots) to intermediary causes (trunk and branches) and consequences and other effects (tree pods) building subjective perspectives into shared accounts through consensus.
3A1, A2Actors and impactsVenn diagramsTo understand impacts and actors. Collective account developed with Venn diagram made from cardboard circles of different sizes and colours to indicate relationships and interactions between various actors and institutions, identifying internal and external organisations active in the topic and how they related to one another in terms of contact and collaboration.
4A1, A2Action agendasAction pathwaysTo articulate overall goal(s) to address issues identified and visualise and depict stepwise actions and actors to achieve these. The action pathway was collectively developed to represent moving towards a desired goal via a series of interconnected events.
5ABCProblems and causesProblem treeAs per workshop 2.
6ABCActors and impactsVenn diagramsAs per workshop 3.
7ABCAction agendasAction pathwaysAs per workshop 4.
8ABCReflections and next stepsFacilitated discussionTo reflect on experiences, outputs and how the process should be carried forward to engage government and non-governmental organisations. Participants discussed differences and similarities between the workshop outputs through facilitated discussions, cross-verified each other’s outputs and reflected on the process and future development.
1–8ABCLived experiencePhotovoiceTo visually convey lived expereince. Participants given basic training in photography, research ethics and digital cameras to take photographs illustrating the topic or condition as it existed in the physical environment. Photographs presented and discussed in meetings and captions developed to describe what images conveyed.
  • A1: original participants village ‘A’; A2: new participants village ‘A’; ABC, three villages combined.

  • *The table presents the process for village ‘A’, nominating water. All village-based discussion groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ progressed through this sequence independently, coming together for workshops 5–8 to further build consensus, verify outputs and reflect on process and next steps.