Table 1

Maternal, delivery and newborn characteristics by treatment group

CharacteristicsInterventionControl
Clusters randomised, n7575
Clusters contributed to enrolment*, n7474
Pregnant women enrolled per cluster, median (IQR)34 (24, 47)32 (21, 48)
Pregnant women enrolled by LHWs, n26632788
Maternal age† (year), mean (SD)28.7 (4.3)28.7 (4.1)
Any ANC received†, n (%)2051 (92.7)2148 (92.7)
ANC4 coverage, n (%)738 (33.3)735 (31.7)
Tetanus toxoid coverage during pregnancy‡, n (%)
 None292 (13.2)361 (15.6)
 One310 (14.0)326 (14.1)
 ≥Two1611 (72.8)1629 (70.3)
Gravidity†, median (min, max)3 (1, 18)3 (1, 18)
Place of delivery§, n (%)
 Home1043 (39.8)1064 (38.7)
 Facility1579 (60.2)1684 (61.3)
 Type of delivery†, n (%)
 Vaginal delivery1614 (72.9)1697 (73.2)
 Caesarean section599 (27.1)621 (26.8)
Delivery attendant, n (%)
 Doctor1082 (48.9)1195 (51.6)
 Traditional birth attendant782 (35.3)785 (33.9)
 Other349 (15.8)338 (14.6)
Delivery outcomes§, n (%)
 Live singletons2533 (96.6)2660 (96.8)
 Live multiples¶25 (1.0)19 (0.7)
 Stillbirth62 (2.4)68 (2.5)
 One stillbirth and one live birth2 (0.1)1 (0.0)
 Twin stillbirths1 (0.0)
Total live born infants, n25852701
Newborn sex**, n (%)
 Male1189 (53.0)1238 (52.8)
 Female1053 (47.0)1107 (47.2)
Gestational age at birth† (weeks)
 Median, (IQR)39 (37, 40)39 (37, 40)
 Preterm (<37 weeks), n (%)418 (18.7)447 (19.1)
Infant anthropometry
 Birth weight†† (g), mean (SD)2752.2 (438.3)2731.4 (439.7)
 Head circumference at birth‡‡(cm), mean (SD)32.4 (1.3)32.5 (1.3)
 Age-/sex-standardised growth parameter
 WAZ at birth,§§ mean (SD)−1.08 (1.06)−1.05 (1.02)
 HCAZ at birth,¶¶ mean (SD)−1.33 (1.04)−1.29 (1.00)
Term low birth weight,*** n (%)362 (19.9)434 (23.0)
Small for gestational age, §§n (%)936 (42.6)938 (41.0)
  • *Two clusters, one from each treatment group, did not contribute to enrolment. Each ‘missing’ cluster contained only 1 LHW and these LHWs remained inactive in their government position throughout the study period.

  • †n=2213 and n=2318 in intervention and control group, respectively. Gestational age at birth was calculated using self-reported first day of last menstrual period (LMP).

  • ‡n=2213 and n=2316 in intervention and control group, respectively.

  • §Delivery outcomes were available for 2622 and 2748 women in intervention and control group, respectively.

  • ¶In the intervention group, 25 twin pairs were delivered. In the control group, 17 twin pairs and 2 sets of triplets were delivered.

  • **n=2242 and n=2345 in intervention and control group, respectively.

  • ††n=2186 and n=2278 in intervention and control group, respectively.

  • ‡‡n=2006 and n=2081 in intervention and control group, respectively.

  • §§n=2196 and n=2288 in intervention and control group, respectively. WAZ at birth were calculated using the Intergrowth package.32

  • ¶¶n=2017 and n=2094 in intervention and control group, respectively. HCAZ at birth were calculated using the Intergrowth package.32

  • ***n=1817 and n=1891 in intervention and control group, respectively.

  • ANC, antenatal care; HCAZ, Head circumference for age z-scores; LHWs, lady health workers; WAZ, Weight for age z-scores.