Table 3

Quality assessment of included studies (non-RCTs)

Evidence Project risk of bias tool (for non-RCTs)
Author, yearStudy design includesComparison groups equivalent at baseline onRandom assignment (group or individual) to the interventionParticipants randomly selected for assessmentControl for potential confoundersFollow-up rate ≥75%
Preintervention and postintervention dataControl or comparison groupCohortSociodemographicsOutcome measures
Castle et al, 201126NoYesNoNoNot reportedNoYesNoYes
Duke et al, 201528YesYesNoYesYesNoYesYesYes
Lam et al, 201737NoYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYes
Virtanen et al, 201549YesYesYesYesNot reportedYesNoYesNo
  • Green: low risk of bias; red: high risk of bias; yellow: not reported/unclear risk of bias.

  • RCT, randomised controlled trial.