Table 2

Characteristics of the study population by pregnancy outcome

CharacteristicsWomen who had an abortion and survived*
(n=89 194)
Women who had live births*
(n=1 787 268)
P value†
Maternal age (years)
 15–193591 (4.0)55 882 (3.0)<0.001
 20–2425 775 (28.9)591 640 (32.2)
 25–2929 310 (32.3)634 182 (35.2)
 30–3417 640 (19.8)310 726 (18.0)
 35–398975 (10.2)132 393 (7.9)
 40–442903 (3.5)44 215 (2.7)
 ≥451000 (1.3)18 214 (1.1)
 Missing0 (0.0)16 (0.0)
Marital status
 Married88 824 (99.6)1 772 493 (99.2)<0.001
 Single370 (0.4)14 765 (0.8)
 Missing0 (0)10 (0)
Maternal education
 Tertiary and above5221 (5.8)85 608 (4.5)<0.001
 Secondary school29 703 (29.5)495 845 (24.7)
 Primary school/below22 053 (24.0)433 415 (23.4)
 Illiterate32 074 (40.6)771 004 (47.2)
 Missing143 (0.2)1396 (0.1)
Maternal employment status
 In-paid employment11 130 (11.0)269 348 (13.9)<0.001
 Not in-paid employment77 471 (89.0)1 505 539 (85.5)
 Missing593 (0.6)12 381 (0.7)
Place of residence
 Urban16 601 (21.4)257 704 (16.8)<0.001
 Rural72 593 (78.6)1 529 564 (83.2)
 Missing0 (0)0 (0)
Religion
 Hindu73 340 (81.0)1 468 352 (81.2)<0.001
 Muslim13 541 (17.3)267 750 (16.6)
 Christian878 (0.8)24 558 (1.2)
 Others1293 (0.8)25 298 (0.8)
 Missing142 (0.2)1310 (0.1)
Social group
 Others64 591 (73.2)1 217 533 (68.8)<0.001
 Schedule caste16 656 (19.9)345 084 (20.5)
 Schedule tribe7805 (6.7)223 345 (10.6)
 Missing142 (0.2)1306 (0.1)
Wealth/asset index
 5: Highest20 678 (23.3)329 699 (18.7)<0.001
 418 242 (20.4)332 053 (18.7)
 316 452 (19.1)328 566 (19.1)
 214 646 (15.9)339 755 (18.2)
 1: Lowest12 799 (14.1)339 366 (18.7)
 Missing6377 (7.1)117 829 (6.6)
Antenatal care use
 No69 113 (76.9)244 447 (14.9)<0.001
 Yes20 081 (23.1)1 542 821 (85.1)
 Missing0 (0)0 (0)
Self-reported mental illness
 No88,42 (99.1)1 773 403 (99.2)<0.001
 Yes627 (0.8)12 505 (0.7)
 Missing143 (0.2)1360 (0.1)
Number of surviving children at the point of interview
 02910 (3.3)21 854 (1.3)<0.001
 1–355 971 (60.2)1 366 546 (74.5)
 4 or more13,92 (17.6)394 976 (23.9)
 Missing16 388 (19.0)3892 (0.3)
Proportion of surviving female children among total surviving children
 0%19 825 (21.3)464 452 (25.2)<0.001
 10%–30%9710 (11.9)250 552 (15.0)
 40%–60%18 198 (20.6)452 104 (25.8)
 70%–90%7495 (8.6)230 421 (13.1)
 100%15 737 (16.7)377 224 (20.0)
 Missing18 229 (21.0)12 515 (0.9)
Family planning (at the point of interview)
 No35 117 (39.7)690 246 (38.7)<0.001
 Yes38 960 (42.5)832 645 (46.1)
 Missing15 117 (17.8)264 377 (15.2)
  • *Frequencies are unweighted (true counts). Rates/proportions are weighted for survey design and clustering effects.

  • †P value shows two-sided p value for χ2 test for difference in proportions.