Table 3

Unadjusted and adjusted associations between sociodemographic and family characteristics, health seeking behaviour, family planning and unsafe abortion

Women who had unsafe abortion*
(n=58 266)
Women who had safe abortion*
(n=30 845)
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)†
missing indicator
(n=89 111)
P valueAdjusted OR‡ (95% CI)†
missing indicator
(n=89 111)
P value§
Sociodemographic characteristics
Maternal age (years)
 15–192548 (4.2)1041 (3.4)1.22 (1.11 to 1.33)<0.0011.09 (1.00 to 1.18)<0.001
 20–2417 852 (30.3)7889 (24.6)1.17 (1.12 to 1.23)1.13 (1.09 to 1.18)
 25–2918 932 (32.3)10 354 (32.4)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 30–3410 908 (18.9)6716 (22.4)0.86 (0.82 to 0.90)0.88 (0.84 to 0.92)
 35–395508 (9.7)3460 (12.0)0.87 (0.82 to 0.92)0.82 (0.78 to 0.87)
 40–441833 (3.4)1070 (3.9)0.94 (0.85 to 1.04)0.82 (0.75 to 0.89)
 ≥45685 (1.3)315 (1.3)1.00 (0.86 to 1.18)0.95 (0.83 to 1.09)
 Missing0 (0)0 (0)N/AN/A
Marital status
 Married58.012 (99.6)30 729 (99.6)0.91 (0.69 to 1.20)0.5125N/A¶
 Single254 (0.4)116 (0.4)1.00 (ref)N/A¶
 Missing0 (0)0 (0)N/AN/A¶
Maternal education
 Tertiary and above2970 (4.8)2242 (7.7)1.00 (ref)<0.0011.00 (ref)<0.001
 Secondary school17 641 (27.3)12 032 (34.2)1.27 (1.18 to 1.37)0.94 (0.88 to 1.00)
 Primary school/below14 395 (23.8)7644 (24.3)1.56 (1.44 to 1.68)1.13 (1.05 to 1.20)
 Illiterate23 165 (43.9)8879 (32.6)2.07 (1.92 to 2.23)1.48 (1.39 to 1.59)
 Missing95 (0.2)48 (0.1)1.92 (1.21 to 3.05)N/A**
Maternal employment status
 In-paid employment740 (11.0)3716 (10.6)1.00 (ref)0.0606N/A¶
 Not in-paid employment50 474 (88.3)26 927 (88.8)0.96 (0.91 to 1.01)N/A¶
 Missing391 (0.7)202 (0.6)N/A¶
Place of residence
 Urban9455 (18.4)7127 (27.6)1.00 (ref)<0.0011.00 (ref)<0.001
 Rural48 811 (81.6)23 718 (72.4)1.69 (1.62 to 1.76)1.26 (1.21 to 1.32)
 Missing0 (0)0 (0)N/A
Religion
 Hindu47 322 (80.3)25 948 (82.4)1.00 (ref)<0.0011.00 (ref)<0.001
 Muslim9209 (17.8)4319 (16.2)1.13 (1.08 to 1.18)1.16 (1.12 to 1.22)
 Christian625 (0.9)253 (0.7)1.33 (1.11 to 1.60)1.39 (1.20 to 1.62)
 Others1016 (0.9)277 (0.6)1.48 (1.23 to 1.76)2.05 (1.78 to 2.36)
 Missing94 (0.2)48 (0.1)1.23 (0.78 to 1.95)N/A††
Social group
 Others41 708 (72.4)22 826 (74.8)1.00 (ref)<0.0011.00 (ref)<0.001
 Schedule caste11 351 (20.5)5290 (18.9)1.12 (1.07 to 1.17)1.08 (1.04 to 1.12)
 Schedule tribe5113 (7.0)2681 (6.2)1.17 (1.10 to 1.25)0.86 (0.81 to 0.90)
 Missing94 (0.2)48 (0.1)1.24 (0.78 to 1.97)N/A**
Wealth/asset index
 5: Highest11 977 (20.6)8684 (30,2)1.00 (ref)<0.0011.00 (ref)<0.001
 411 496 (19.8)6726 (21.8)1.29 (1.23 to 1.36)1.08 (1.03 to 1.13)
 311 012 (19.8)5421 (17.5)1.57 (1.49 to 1.66)1.18 (1.13 to 1.24)
 210 113 (16.8)4521 (13.7)1.67 (1.58 to 1.76)1.24 (1.18 to 1.31)
 1: Lowest9443 (15.7)3348 (9.8)2.02 (1.90 to 2.14)1.45 (1.38 to 1.53)
 Missing4225 (7.2)2145 (7.1)1.46 (1.36 to 1.57)1.33 (1.25 to 1.42)
Health seeking behaviour
Antenatal care use
 No46 392 (79.7)22 656 (71.2)1.00 (ref)<0.0011.00 (ref)<0.001
 Yes11 874 (20.3)8189 (28.8)0.63 (0.60 to 0.66)0.69 (0.67 to 0.72)
 Missing(0)(0)N/AN/A
Family characteristics
Number of surviving children at the point of interview
 02203 (3.9)703 (1.9)1.85 (1.66 to 2.07)<0.0011.30 (1.16 to 1.46)<0.001
 1–335 751 (59.8)20 165 (61.5)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 4 or more8991 (17.2)4924 (19.8)0.94 (0.90 to 0.99)0.96 (0.91 to 1.00)
 Missing11 321 (19.2)5053 (16.8)1.06 (1.01 to 1.11)0.79 (0.68 to 0.93)
Proportion of surviving female children among total surviving children
 0%12 596 (21.0)7206 (21.8)1.00 (ref)<0.0011.00 (ref)<0.001
 10%–30%6148 (11.6)3554 (12.4)0.97 (0.91 to 1.03)0.97 (0.92 to 1.03)
 40%–60%11 704 (20.4)6481 (21.2)0.99 (0.94 to 1.05)1.05 (1.00 to 1.10)
 70%–90%4736 (8.3)2749 (9.0)0.96 (0.90 to 1.03)1.00 (0.94 to 1.06)
 100%10 343 (17.0)5379 (16.1)1.10 (1.04 to 1.15)1.12 (1.07 to 1.17)
 Missing12 739 (21.6)5476 (19.6)1.14 (1.08 to 1.20)1.43 (1.23 to 1.66)
Family planning
Use of family planning methods at the point of interview
 No24 762 (42.2)10 325 (34.7)1.00 (ref)<0.0011.00 (ref)<0.001
 Yes22 823 (39.1)16 101 (49.4)0.65 (0.63 to 0.67)0.69 (0.66 to 0.71)
 Missing10 681 (18.8)4419 (15.9)0.97 (0.92 to 1.02)1.02 (0.97 to 1.06)
Others
Self-reported mental illness
 No57 752 (99.0)30 589 (99.1)1.0 (ref)0.5773N/A¶
 Yes420 (0.8)207 (0.7)1.07 (0.88 to 1.31)N/A¶
 Missing94 (0.2)49 (0.1)1.20 (0.76 to 1.90)N/A¶
  • *Frequencies are unweighted (true counts). Rates/proportions are weighted for survey design and clustering effects.

  • †The 95% CIs were calculated using linearised standard errors p value for a t-test showing the significance level for the overall univariable regression model.

  • ‡Multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for the other variables/potential risk factors in the final model.

  • §P value for a Wald test indicating whether the incremental adjustment for an independent variable significantly improves the fit of the model.

  • ¶N/As are shown because these variables were not included in the final multivariable logistic model.

  • **N/As are shown because the OR associated with the missing category was extremely large, which can be explained by the small number of missing values in each group.

  • ††N/A is shown because the OR was omitted due to collinearity between missing categories.

  • ‡‡P value for a t-test showing the significance level for the overall univariable regression model.