Table 5

Description of included studies for the values and preferences review

AuthorStudy locationStudy populationStudy designOPK
Anderson et al, 199621Scotland (Edinburgh)Couples using donor insemination services who had used OPKs (not lab-based urinary LH testing) to time inseminationProspective cohort study (acceptability questionnaire mailed after completing study)
Sample size: 40 couples
Conceive, Clearplan or Predictor
Ayoola et al, 201526USA (Grand Rapids, Michigan)Women attempting to become pregnant
Women were 18–39 years old, low-income, racial/ethnic minorities, medically underserved and living in urban areas. Most had at least one previously unplanned pregnancy.
Cross-sectional survey
Sample size: 22 women
Ovulation test strips in ‘Knowing Your Body’ kit
Kopitzke et al, 199127USA (Lexington, Kentucky)Female patients at infertility clinics
Women were 26–40 years old (mean age 33). Median family income was $47 000. Women had participated in a previous study of endometriosis and infertility. Couples had been attempting to become pregnant for an average of 3.2 years (range 2–15 years).
Cross-sectional study (mail survey)
Sample size: 26 women
LH urine ovulation kit (not specified)
Robinson et al, 200723USA (national)Women attempting to become pregnant <24 months
Women were 21–40 years old (maximum 15% of total participants in the 35–40 age group) with a partner age 21–50.
Women were excluded if using hormonal birth control or fertility drugs that contained hCG or LH, had a medical condition that presented a risk if they became pregnant or had been attempting to become pregnant >2 years.
RCT (consumer satisfaction questionnaire mailed after completing study)
Sample size: 305 women
Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor
Severy et al, 200625USA (Gainesville, Florida, and Raleigh, North Carolina)Couples attempting to become pregnant <12 months reporting concern over lack of success.
Women were 18–44 years old, in a mutually monogamous relationship with a male partner and English-literate. Women had never undergone infertility investigation or treatment, regular cycles (21–42 days), at least 3 months after stopping hormonal contraception, last pregnancy or breastfeeding, at least 13 cycles after a last Depo-Provera injection
Women were excluded if using hormonal medication or had liver or kidney disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome or any medical condition that would put the volunteer at risk if she were to become pregnant.
Prospective cohort study (acceptability assessments every cycle for four cycles)
Sample size: 61 couples
Clearplan Easy Fertility Monitor
Jones et al, 201528 and
Tiplady et al, 201324
UK (national)Women attempting to become pregnant <12 months
Women were 18–40 years old who had regular menstruation and wished to become pregnant.
Women were excluded if they had used hormonal contraception in the last 3 months, were currently undergoing fertility treatment or investigation, had previously been diagnosed as infertile, had a history of depression, anxiety or panic attacks or were dependent on either drugs or alcohol. Women who had previously used ovulation tests were not excluded from participating.
RCT (individual semistructured telephone interviews with all participants after completing study)
Sample size: 210 women (qualitative analysis reached saturation after coding 18 interviews each from OPK and control group)
Clearblue Digital Home Ovulation Test
  • LH, luteinising hormone; OPK, ovulation predictor kit; RCT, randomised controlled trial.