Table 4

Summary of effect sizes and meta-analyses

OutcomeStudy typeNumber of effect sizesRR195% CIP value for RRQ valueP value for Q statisticI2
Uptake of STI testing services
 Any STIRCT52.9411.188 to 7.2810.020378.0050.00098.942
 Multiple STIs (CT and NG)RCT11.3701.190 to 1.580
 CT onlyRCT43.5671.096 to 11.6080.035294.6470.00098.982
 Any STI—females onlyRCT43.2921.072 to 10.1150.037284.5420.00098.946
 Any STI—males onlyRCT36.9001.721 to 27.6560.00662.1820.00096.784
 CT only—males onlyRCT36.9001.721 to 27.6560.00662.1820.00096.784
 Multiple STIs (CT and NG; NG and TV)Obs22.9900.426 to 20.9780.27121.4270.00095.333
 CT onlyObs12.3511.597 to 3.462
Case finding (proportion of positive test results)
Sensitivity analysis: denominator: those randomised/enrolled (intention to-treat)
 CT onlyRCT42.1661.043 to 4.4980.03819.2140.00084.387
 Any STIs (CT, NG and TV)Obs11.1220.449 to 2.802
 CT onlyObs21.3960.372 to 5.2370.6211.2370.26619.168
 NG onlyObs20.9780.249 to 3.8350.9740.0710.7890.000
 TV (PCR) onlyObs21.5900.43 to 5.8780.4870.0010.9810.000
 TV (culture) onlyObs11.4690.338 to 6.38
Sensitivity analysis: denominator: those who collected samples for STI testing (subgroup)
 CT onlyRCT40.7180.585 to 0.8820.0021.3430.7190.000
Multiple STIs (CT and NG; NG and TV)Obs21.3780.582 to 3.2640.4663.8860.04974.269
CT onlyObs41.3540.622 to 2.9470.44541.5310.00092.776
NG onlyObs30.9390.558 to 1.5770.8112.2720.32111.956
TV (PCR) onlyObs20.7910.208 to 3.0040.7301.0410.3083.926
TV (culture) onlyObs11.4630.346 to 6.178
  • CT, Chlamydia trachomatis;NG, Neisseria gonorrhoeae;RR, risk ratio (pooled risk ratio if number of effect sizes>1);STI, sexually transmitted infection;TV, Trichomonas vaginalis.