Table 3

Quality assessment of included studies

Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool (for randomised controlled trials (RCTs))
StudyRandom sequence generation
(selection bias)
Allocation concealment (selection bias)Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)Blinding of outcome assessment (detection bias)Incomplete outcome data addressed (attrition bias)Selective reporting (reporting bias)Other bias
Andersen et al, 199848High*Unclear†High‡Unclear§High¶Unclear**High††
Cook et al, 200743LowLowHigh‡LowUnclear‡‡LowUnclear****
Ostergaard et al, 199850Unclear§§Unclear†High‡Unclear§High¶Unclear**Low
Ostergaard et al, 200349Unclear§§LowHigh‡Unclear§High¶Unclear**High††
Xu et al, 201151LowLowHigh‡Unclear§High¶LowUnclear¶¶
Evidence Project Risk of Bias Tool (for non-RCTs)
StudyStudy design includes preintervention and postintervention dataStudy design includes control or comparison groupStudy design includes cohortComparison groups equivalent at baseline on sociodemographicsComparison groups equivalent at baseline on outcome measuresRandom assignment (group or Individual level) to the interventionParticipants randomly selected for assessmentControl for potential confoundersFollow-up rate >80%
Barbee et al, 201641YesNoNoNot applicableNot applicableNot applicableNoUnclear***Not applicable
Bradshaw et al, 200542YesNoNoNot applicableNot applicableNot applicableNoUnclear***Not applicable
Gaydos et al, 201144NoYesNoNoUnclear†††NoNoUnclear***Not applicable
Habel et al, 201845YesNoNoNot applicableNot applicableNot applicableNoUnclear‡‡‡Not applicable
Holland-Hall et al, 200246NoYesNoNot reportedUnclear†††NoNoUnclear§§§Not applicable
Knight et al, 201347YesNoNoNot applicableNot applicableNot applicableNoUnclear¶¶¶Not applicable
  • *Participants randomly divided into intervention and control ‘according to date of birth’.

  • †No details on allocation concealment reported.

  • ‡No blinding, and the outcomes are likely to be influenced by lack of blinding.

  • §No blinding, but no subjective outcomes were reported, and unknown if laboratory personnel or testing assessors were blinded.

  • ¶Over 20% of participants were not tested, and the missing data were not balanced in the intervention and control groups.

  • **Study protocol not available from trial registries.

  • ††Participants were sexual partners of CT-positive patients.

  • ‡‡Number of completed tests at 6, 12 and 18 months not clearly reported; 58% and 56% missing data from the intervention and control group, respectively.

  • §§Details on random sequence generation method not reported.

  • ¶¶STI management strategy included reminders; study aim was to evaluate retesting of CT-positive patients.

  • ***Confounders not mentioned.

  • †††STI testing uptake history at baseline (at preintervention time point or in comparison group) not reported.

  • ‡‡‡Stratified analysis by gender only; other confounders not mentioned.

  • §§§Sexual experience mentioned but not controlled for; other confounders not mentioned.

  • ¶¶¶Stratified analysis by clinic type only; other confounders not mentioned.

  • ****Both intervention and the control groups had access to usual care if symptomatic.