Table 1

Adolescent non-communicable disease risk factor interventions and assumptions

Risk factorInterventionEffectiveness estimate (source)Outcome
Tobacco smokingIncrease in excise tax to 75% of final retail price of tobacco productsFor every 10% increase in price, smoking prevalence declines by 5.6%.31Reduction in monthly smoking prevalence among adolescents
Point-of-sale advertising bansFull implementation leads to a 27% reduction in the chance of smoking.32
Heavy episodic drinkingCompared with current levels, 50% increase in excise taxFor every 10% increase in price, heavy episodic drinking declines by 7.3%.33Reduction in heavy episodic drinking among adolescents
Complete ban on alcohol advertising (television, radio, outdoors and print)Full implementation leads to a 42% reduction in heavy episodic drinking.34
High body mass indexAddition of a 20% excise tax on sugar-sweetened beveragesFor every 10% increase in price, consumption declines by 10%.35Reduction in population mean body mass index among adolescents
School-based physical activity and nutrition programmesFull implementation leads to a long term 0.29 kg/m2 reduction in body mass index among participants.22