Table 1

Scope of the review

OutcomeInternalised or self-stigma, shame, negative self-image, negative self-perception related to HIV status, other diseases that disproportionately affect people living with HIV (tuberculosis, hepatitis) or stigmatised behaviours of key populations affected by HIV (sex work, male-to-male sexual intercourse, drug use, transgender expression).
PopulationPeople living with HIV, sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who use drugs, transgender people of all ages.
Geographical locationLow-income and middle-income countries.
Study design
  • Randomised controlled trials.

  • Controlled clinical trials.

  • Prospective controlled cohort studies.

  • Retrospective controlled cohort studies if baseline exposure data were collected at time of baseline of study.

  • Controlled before and after studies including econometric studies.

  • Interrupted time series studies.