Table 3

Application of key IR principles to IRDS health studies for large-scale impact in LMICs

Management and financing arrangements: real world conditionsN=791
n (%)
Implementation led by usual implementing agencies
 Yes344 (43.5)
 No249 (31.5)
 Not described198 (25.0)
No additional funding (apart from usual budget) or plans for sustaining any additional funding provided
 Yes206 (26.0)
 No (additional funding provided)361 (45.6)
 Not described225 (28.4)
No additional management support or plans for sustaining any additional management provided
 Yes215 (27.2)
 No (additional management support provided)365 (46.1)
 Not described211 (26.7)
Measurement of implementation
 Included implementation outcome variables (eg, fidelity, acceptability, coverage)426 (53.9)
 Included effectiveness outcome variables (eg, morbidity and mortality)395 (49.9)
 Included both effectiveness and implementation outcome variables200 (24.9)
 Measured change in implementation outcome variables79 (10.0)
Multistakeholder collaboration in IRDS studies
 Academics, implementers/CSO, Govt./policy-makers and donors17 (2.2)
 Academics, implementers/CSO and Govt./policy-makers130 (16.4)
 Academics and Implementers/CSO411 (51.9)
 Academics and Govt./Policy-makers176 (22.2)
 Academics and donors60 (7.6)
  • Source: Authors’ literature review.

  • CSO, civil society organisations; IR, implementation research; LMICs, low-income and middle-income countries.