Table 2

Changes in the prevalence of various forms of FGM  over birth cohorts

CountryCohort comparisonAll types of FGM
PD (95% CI)
Flesh removal
PD (95% CI)
Symbolic ‘nick’
PD (95% CI)
Infibulation
PD (95% CI)
Western Africa
 Benin65–67 vs 95–97−15.7 (−17.5 to −14.0)−14.5 (−16.1 to −12.8)−1.1 (−1.6 to −0.6)
 Burkina Faso65–67 vs 92–94−24.8 (−27.8 to −21.8)−31.0 (−34.2 to −27.8)2.3 (0.1 to 4.5)−0.9 (−1.6 to −0.3)
 Cote d’Ivoire65–67 vs 95–97−16.2 (−22.5 to −9.9)−16.5 (−23.7 to −9.4)−1.2 (−3.0 to 0.5)−1.0 (−4.5 to 2.4)
 Gambia65–67 vs 95–973.6 (−2.9 to 10.0)1.5 (−5.5 to 8.5)
 Ghana65–67 vs 86–88−3.6 (−6.2 to −1.1)
 Guinea65–67 vs 95–97−5.5 (−7.4 to −3.5)−11.8 (−14.7 to −8.9)6.3 (3.8 to 8.7)−1.9 (−4.5 to 0.8)
 Mali65–67 vs 95–97−0.9 (−3.3 to 1.5)−15.1 (−19.3 to −10.8)9.9 (6.7 to 13.0)8.5 (5.2 to 11.7)
 Niger65–67 vs 95–97−2.2 (−3.3 to −1.1)−0.8 (−1.8 to 0.2)
 Nigeria65–67 vs 95–97−22.6 (−24.9 to −20.2)−16.0 (−18.2 to −13.9)−0.9 (−1.6 to −0.02)−1.4 (−2.0 to −0.7)
 Senegal65–67 vs 95–97−4.6 (−7.6 to −1.6)−6.8 (−9.3 to 4.3)0.0 (−1.3 to 1.3)−1.9 (−3.2 to −0.7)
 Sierra Leone65–67 vs 95–97−23.3 (−25.9 to −20.7)−22.2 (−25.7 to −18.7)−2.5 (−4.0 to −1.0)2.8 (0.3 to 5.3)
 Togo65–67 vs 95–97−7.5 (−10.3 to −4.8)−7.0 (−9.6 to −4.5)−1.2 (−2.2 to −0.1)
Eastern Africa
 Ethiopia65–67 vs 86–88−18.9 (−22.4 to −15.3)−1.4 (−2.6 to −0.01)
 Kenya65–67 vs 95–97−26.7 (−30.1 to −23.2)−25.7 (−31.5 to −20.0)−0.2 (−0.5 to 0.2)−3.2 (−4.8 to −1.6)
 Tanzania65–67 vs 95–97−15.4 (−17.7 to −13.1)−14.4 (−17.1 to −11.7)−0.1 (−0.5 to 0.2)−0.5 (−1.3 to 0.3)
 Uganda65–67 vs 92–94−0.5 (−1.8 to 0.7)
Central and Southern Africa
 Cameroon65–67 vs 86–88−0.5 (−1.8 to 0.8)0.1 (−0.9 to 1.1)
 Central African Republic65–67 vs 77–79−10.6 (−15.9 to −5.3)
 Chad65–67 vs 95–97−9.6 (−15.2 to −4.0)−14.3 (−19.3 to −9.3)4.2 (0.4 to 7.9)2.0 (0.6 to 3.3)
 Swaziland65–67 vs 89–91−0.2 (−1.9 to 1.5)
Middle East
 Egypt65–67 vs 95–97−7.2 (−10.3 to −4.0)
 Yemen65–67 vs 95–97−7.3 (−11.5 to −3.0)
  • FGM, female genital mutilation; PD, prevalence difference.