Table 1

Diagnostics infrastructure comparison

Test typeInfrastructure requirementsTraining requirementsTurnaround timeInhouse or prototypeCommercial sourceTarget population
Virus isolation, neutralisationHigh (BSL-4)
(reference laboratory)
High (advanced lab technician)3–7 daysSeveralHuman, animal
NAAT reference (including multiplex)High (BSL-3/4)
(regional lab, reference laboratory)
High to moderate
(advanced lab technician)
2.5 hours
1–2 hours prep
>10>5Human, animal, ticks
NAAT POCModerate/BSL-2
(district hospital)
(laboratory technician)
1–2 hours1Human, ticks, culture
ELISA, IFAHigh to moderate
(regional lab, district hospital)
(laboratory technician)
3–4 hours>106Human, animal, culture
(clinic, health centre, field settings)
(nurse, healthcare worker)
<30 min
  • BSL, biosafety containment level; IFA, immunofluorescence assay; NAAT, nucleic acid amplification test; POC, point of care; RDT, rapid diagnostic test.