Table 2

Distribution of occupational and educational outcomes of working children >4 to ≤18 years stratified by sex (n=4377)

Full sampleMaleFemaleP value
Total, n437722852092
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Age, years12.<0.001
Age started working, years10.92.910.72.911.12.8<0.001
Duration of work, years1.<0.05
Hours worked daily6.<0.001
Hours doing housework weekly6.<0.001
Past 30 days wage, US$72.258.969.761.874.955.5<0.01
N % n % n %
Suffering from illness or disability80818.542418.638418.40.865
Currently enrolled in school80018.344719.635316.9<0.05
Ever injured at work132630.378534.454125.9<0.001
Uses sharp or heavy objects at work148333.973132.075235.9<0.01
Gives wages to parent*230357.8114254.3116161.7<0.001
Takes time off work weekly†181841.5102444.879438.0<0.001
Reason for not attending school‡
 I started working.180350.590249.290151.8<0.001
 There isn’t a nearby school.53214.930416.622813.1
 I don’t have time to go to school.36910.31779.619211.0
 My parents were unable to pay.2697.51367.41337.7
 I don’t feel it is useful/I don’t like it.2577.21468.01116.4
Decision to work taken by:
 Person himself/herself261959.8140461.4121558.1<0.001
Reason to start work§
 To support the family374885.6194685.2180286.10.359
 To earn money270361.8142562.4127861.10.387
Field of work§
 Waste picking2325.31647.2683.3<0.001
 Street services1212.8793.5422.0<0.01
 Car wash1002.3974.330.1<0.001
  • Due to respondents answering ’I don’t know’ or respondents only answering parts of the survey depending on earlier answers, the total numerators/denominators are *3985/3985, †4376/4377 and ‡3573/3577.

  • §Total greater than 100% as more than one option possible.