Table 2

Qualitative data collection, participants and frequency of contacts

MethodParticipantsFrequency of contactsData collected
ObservationsClinic activities240 observation daysDescriptions of clinic activities, operation of intervention activities, patient pathways and barriers and facilitators to chronic care and how they changed over time.
Patient consultations443 patient consultationsDescriptions of nurses, lay health workers and patients’ interactions, and how they changed over time. We assessed time spent by patients during consultations to understand nurse workload and how the time spent affects adherence of patients to appointment.
In-depth interviewsClinic managers36 interviews with 9 managers (4 per participant)Exploring clinic routines, their expectations of the research, any concerns, how patients with chronic diseases are managed, their experience with the lay health worker intervention and perceptions of whether change occurred.
Clinic supervisors6 interviews with 3 supervisors (2 per supervisor)
Subdistrict manager3 interviews
Lay health workers60 interviews with 10 workers (6 per worker)Monthly account of implementation progress. Details of day-to-day experience in the clinic and how the clinics were changing.
Implementation manager9 interviewsProgress of the intervention across the clinics and how differently the intervention was running from one clinic to another.
Exit interviewsPatients703 interviewsPatients’ experience of care in the clinic and their engagement with the LHWs, nurses and staff in general, and how this changed with the intervention.
  • LHW, lay health worker.