Table 1

Variables to operationalise constructs included in the statistical models

Node (construct)Covariates included in the modelCovariates excluded from the model (missing data threshold)Covariates excluded from the model (no available measure)
RaceRace, indigenous, quilombola
Local areaUrbanicity, running water, sewage, electricity, water store, garbage collectionHouse typeTransit access
EducationYears of education, literacy
Socioeconomic vulnerabilityChild work, institutionalisation, work-acquired TBEmployment, pension receipt, unemployment benefit, alimony receiptFood security, adequate nutrition, perception of poverty
Age and sexAge, sexGender identity
ComorbiditiesAIDS, alcohol use disorder, diabetes, HIV, mental disorder, other chronic illnessGeneral mental health, stress
Expenditure(on) Food, energy, gas, water(on) Rent, transportMedical costs
Health-seeking behaviourDirectly observed treatmentEngagement with primary care
TB form and severityChest X-ray, initial sputum smear, pulmonary/extrapulmonary, throat culture, tuberculin skin testMDR-TB (is included in outcome as non-successful treatment)
Drug regimenRifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin, pyrazinamide, ethionamide, other drugs
  • Not all covariates included under one of the constructs in the directed acyclic graph (DAG) were included in the propensity score model. Table 1 summarises which covariates were included and which were excluded. Some covariates that might reasonably be part of the pathways encoded in this DAG were excluded as there was no adequate measure of them in these linked administrative data. Other covariates were excluded by the missing data threshold, which itself was chosen to balance measurability of each of the constructs with the loss of sample size from undertaking a complete case analysis.

  • The housing quality node was not included in the model as it was not associated with outcome (TB mortality) or exposure. The housing node included measurable covariates of roof, floor, and wall material, number of people in the home, and the number of bedrooms and bathrooms, as well as the unmeasurable covariate of indoor air pollution.

  • MDR-TB, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; TB, tuberculosis.