Table 2

Population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of stunting cases (in thousands) attributable to psychosocial risk factors by region (95% CIs in parentheses)

RegionLow maternal educationMaternal depressionIntimate partner violenceOrphanhood*Joint†
PAF (%)Stunted (n)PAF (%)Stunted (n)PAF (%)Stunted (n)PAF (%)Stunted (n)PAF (%)Stunted (n)
All low/middle-income countries6.5
(6.2 to 6.8)
2876
(2618 to 3141)
7.3
(−0.1 to 17.7)
3215
(−22 to 7809)
4.7
(3.6 to 5.8)
2079
(1556 to 2648)
0.01
(0.01 to 0.02)
6
(2 to 11)
16.4
(9.9 to 25.7)
7235
(4405 to 11 524)
East Asia and Pacific4.1
(3.8 to 4.5)
302
(261 to 342)
6.3
(0.0 to 15.8)
461
(−3 to 1169)
2.9
(2.2 to 3.8)
215
(155 to 284)
12.1
(6.3 to 21.2)
886
(458 to 1542)
South Asia6.7
(6.4 to 7)
1118
(894 to 1341)
7.2
(−0.1 to 17.2)
1205
(−8 to 2957)
5.2
(3.9 to 6.4)
858
(607 to 1162)
0.01
(0.00 to 0.02)
2
(0 to 4)
16.8
(10.4 to 25.7)
2802
(1687 to 4461)
Central Asia0.4
(0.3 to 0.5)
2
(2 to 2)
7.4
(0.0 to 18)
34
(0 to 81)
2.9
(2.1 to 3.7)
13
(9 to 17)
9.8
(2.7 to 20.2)
44
(12 to 91)
North Africa and Middle East5.9
(5.5 to 6.2)
152
(132 to 173)
9.4
(−0.1 to 22.6)
242
(−2 to 585)
4.4
(3.3 to 5.4)
114
(83 to 143)
17.5
(9.2 to 29.6)
453
(232 to 767)
Sub-Saharan Africa8.0
(7.7 to 8.4)
1232
(1159 to 1308)
7.5
(−0.1 to 18.5)
1148
(−8 to 2813)
5.3
(4.0 to 6.5)
812
(614 to 1016)
0.03
(0.01 to 0.05)
4
(2 to 7)
18.3
(11.7 to 27.9)
2813
(1800 to 4284)
Latin America and Caribbean4.0
(3.8 to 4.3)
71
(63 to 79)
7.2
(−0.1 to 17.8)
125
(−1 to 310)
3.8
(2.9 to 4.8)
67
(51 to 85)
13.5
(7.0 to 23.2)
237
(120 to 405)
  • *Only estimated for 45 countries: 43 in sub-Saharan Africa, India in South Asia, and Mauritius in East Asia and Pacific (given that only one small country in East Asia and Pacific has data, results for this region are not presented here).

  • †Joint estimates reflect low maternal education, maternal depression and intimate partner violence, since global estimates were not available for orphanhood.