Table 3

Association between education (Edu) and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the Arabian Gulf: findings from Gulf Coast registry

OutcomeUnivariate statisticsMultivariate logistic regression
All (N=3874), n (%)No Edu (n=1835), n (%)Edu (n=2039), n (%)P valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted P valueHLROC
12 months143 (3.7)105 (5.7)38 (1.9)<0.0010.56 (0.33 to 0.94)0.0300.3330.72
Myocardial infarction
12 months282 (7.3)203 (11.1)79 (3.9)<0.0010.58 (0.38 to 0.86)0.0080.2640.75
All-cause mortality
12 months317 (8.2)236 (12.9)81 (4.0)<0.0010.58 (0.39 to 0.87)0.0090.7910.79
Readmissions for cardiac reasons
12 months990 (25.6)572 (31.2)418 (20.5)<0.0010.61 (0.48 to 0.77)<0.0010.6130.64
12 months1276 (32.9)783 (42.7)493 (24.2)<0.0010.55 (0.44 to 0.68)<0.0010.2210.69
  • MACE included stroke/TIA, myocardial infarction, mortality and readmissions for cardiac reasons. For 6-month and 12-month follow-up, the events were cumulative.

  • Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression models using the simultaneous method. The covariates in the models included GRACE risk score (derived from age, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, cardiac arrest at admission, ST segment deviation on electrocardiogram (EKG), abnormal cardiac enzymes and Killip class) as well as gender, smoking status, marital status, employment status, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease, left ventricular ejection fraction, acute coronary syndrome type and use of evidence-based cardiac medications at hospital discharge (aspirin, clopidogrel, beta blocker, statin, ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)).

  • Over the 1-year follow-up period, a total of 20 patients (0.5%) were lost to follow-up.

  • HL, Hosmer-Lemeshow p value; ROC, area under the receiver operating curve (also known as c-statistic); TIA, transient ischaemic attack.