Table 3

Synthesis of results according to parenting exposure: total sample (n=44)

Parenting roleSexual and reproductive healthMental healthEducational achievementAdaptive functioningConduct disorderSubstance useTotal
Connection1 7↑47 50 51 53* 55 57 59 6↑7576 77 78 80 82 1↓‡81 4↑69–71 74 3↑63 66 68 20↑47 50 51 53* 55 57 59 63 66 68–71 74–78 80 821↓‡81
Connection2 : general communication1↑48 1↑48
Connection3 : sexual and reproductive health communication4↑55–58
1↓51
2↔52 60
4↑55–58
1↓51
2↔52 60
Positive behaviour control1 (monitoring)8↑52 56–62 1↑79 2↑69 70 1↑63 1↑49 2↑54 90 15↑49 52 54 56–63 69 70 79 90
Negative behaviour control2 (harsh)1↓62 2↓76 79 2↓72 73 2↓66 68 4↓84–87
1(+C1)↑83
1(-C1)↓88
1 89 12↓62 66 68 72 73 76 79 84–87 89
1(+C1)↑83
1(-C1)↓88
Role modelling (of positive or negative behaviour)1↑70(positive modelling for education)2↓54 90(negative modelling of substance use)1↑70(positive modelling)
2↓54 90(negative modelling)
Provision and protection 1↑69 1↑63 2↑63 69
Parenting style: authoritarian1↑57 1↓812↓64 67 1↑57
3↓64 67 81
Parenting style: authoritative1↑57 3↑64 65 67 4↑57 64 65 67
Total studies (44)148667344
  • +C1; with connection (warmth).

  • -C1; without connection (warmth).

  • positive outcome↑, negative outcome↓, inconsistent↔.

  • *For girls only.

  • †Indicates maternal.

  • ‡Indicates paternal warmth.