Table 2

Modified WHO parenting dimensions (adapted from WHO46)

WHO role/dimensionAdapted role/dimensionDescription
ConnectionConnectionParental warmth, affection and care. Conveys that child is loved and accepted.
Connection: general communicationPositive communication expressing support and encouragement.
Connection: SRH communicationCommunication specifically about SRH issues.
Behaviour controlPositive behaviour controlPositive regulation, limit setting and monitoring.
Negative behaviour controlHarsh punishment, especially corporal punishment, physical or psychological punishment.
Modelling appropriate behaviourRole modellingRole modelling of risky or protective health related behaviours or attitudes.
Provision and protectionProvision and protectionProvision of own resources, accessing external resources (networks) for example, for schooling/ education.
  • SRH, sexual and reproductive health.