Table 4

Synthesis of results according to parenting exposure: higher quality studies (score >4) (n=18)

Parenting roleSexual and reproductive healthMental healthEducational achievementAdaptive functioningConduct disorderSubstance useTotal
Connection1 3↑47 50 59 3↑75*76 77 1↑66 7↑47 50 59 66 76 77 75*
Connection2 general communication1↑48 1↑48
Connection3 sexual and reproductive health communication1↔52 1↔52
Positive behaviour control1 (monitoring)4↑52 59 61 62 1↑54 5↑52 54 59 61 62
Negative behaviour control2 (harsh).1↓62 1↓76 1↓72 1↓66 2↓85 87
1(+C1)↑83
1 (-C1)↓88
1↓89 7↓62 66 72 76 85 87 89
1(+C1)↑83
1(-C1)↓88
Role modelling (of positive or negative behaviour)1↓54 (negative modelling of substance use)1↓54(negative modelling)
Provision and protection
Parenting style: authoritarian
Parenting style: authoritative
Total studies (18)73114218
  • +C1 ; with connection (warmth).

  • -C1 ; without connection (warmth).

  • Positive outcome↑, negative outcome↓, inconsistent↔.

  • *Indicates maternal.