Table 4B

Logistic regression models to investigate the association between malaria diagnostic service readiness, health aid and utilisation (n=2118)

VariablesMalaria diagnostic readiness
(1)(2)(3)(4)
Advice or treatmentHeel/Finger stickReceiving ACTAny malaria services
OR (95%CI)OR (95%CI)OR (95%CI)OR (95%CI)
Malaria diagnosis readiness
 Medium1·182 (0·855 to 1·633)1·299 (0·806 to 2·091)1·080 (0·733 to 1·591)1·134 (0·827 to 1·554)
 High1·066 (0·712 to 1·597)0·809 (0·443 to 1·477)0·912 (0·557 to 1·491)1·048 (0·707 to 1·554)
Health aid (project count)0·956 (0·899 to 1·018)0·972 (0·886 to 1·066)1·003 (0·935 to 1·077)0·975 (0·919 to 1·035)
Night-time lights0·989 (0·837 to 1·167)1·094 (0·865 to 1·383)1·119 (0·911 to 1·374)0·974 (0·828 to 1·147)
Population1·000** (1·000 to 1·000)1·000* (1·000 to 1·000)1·000 (1·000 to 1·000)1·000** (1·000 to 1·000)
Area (square km)1·008** (1·000 to 1·017)1·016*** (1·004 to 1·027)1·008 (0·997 to 1·019)1·007 (0·999 to 1·014)
Mother’s education
 Primary1·238 (0·876 to 1·749)1·518 (0·870 to 2·649)1·234 (0·818 to 1·861)1·280 (0·912 to 1·796)
 Secondary1·515* (0·967 to 2·374)2·047** (1·039 to 4·033)1·516 (0·874 to 2·628)1·545* (0·994 to 2·401)
 Higher0·823 (0·177 to 3·826)2·462 (0·490 to 12·374)0·949 (0·117 to 7·693)0·821 (0·177 to 3·807)
Age of mother1·004 (0·985 to 1·024)0·997 (0·969 to 1·027)1·005 (0·982 to 1·028)0·997 (0·978 to 1·016)
Age of child0·891** (0·817 to 0·973)0·890* (0·782 to 1·012)0·968 (0·871 to 1·076)0·903** (0·829 to 0·984)
Distance from nearest Health Facility0·966 (0·907 to 1·028)0·920* (0·836 to 1·014)0·951 (0·882 to 1·025)0·964 (0·907 to 1·024)
Wealth Index
 Poorer1·306 (0·891 to 1·914)1·076 (0·619 to 1·870)0·962 (0·621 to 1·489)1·281 (0·884 to 1·856)
 Middle0·980 (0·656 to 1·462)0·718 (0·393 to 1·314)0·667* (0·415 to 1·074)0·959 (0·650 to 1·415)
 Richer1·138 (0·766 to 1·689)0·788 (0·441 to 1·410)0·941 (0·600 to 1·474)1·131 (0·771 to 1·661)
 Richest1·102 (0·693 to 1·753)0·819 (0·426 to 1·574)0·697 (0·394 to 1·234)1·086 (0·690 to 1·711)
Geographic classification
 Rural0·977 (0·649 to 1·470)0·641 (0·370 to 1·113)1·411 (0·837 to 2·377)1·115 (0·745 to 1·671)
Malaria Ecology Index2·553*** (1·540 to 4·235)2·030* (0·981 to 4·199)1·979** (1·071 to 3·655)2·470*** (1·504 to 4·055)
Constant0·057*** (0·018 to 0·177)0·028*** (0·005 to 0·148)0·041*** (0·010 to 0·167)0·073*** (0·024 to 0·220)
  • Reference group includes low malaria service readiness, low malaria diagnostic readiness, low malaria training readiness, no education, poorest and urban geographic location.

  • ****P<0.01, **P<0.05, *P<0.1.

  • ACT, artemisinin-based combination therapy.