Table 4A

Logistic regression models to investigate the association between overall malaria service readiness, health aid and utilisation (n=2118)

VariablesOverall malaria service readiness
(1)(2)(3)(4)
Advice or treatmentHeel/Finger stickReceiving ACTAny malaria services
OR (95%CI)OR (95%CI)OR (95%CI)OR (95%CI)
Overall malaria service readiness
 Medium1·100 (0·767 to1·576)1·598* (0·915 to 2·793)0·952 (0·625 to 1·451)1·089 (0·768 to 1·545)
 High0·816 (0·502 to 1·329)1·060 (0·500 to 2·246)0·559* (0·310 to 1·007)0·830 (0·519 to 1·328)
Health aid (project count)0·963 (0·904 to 1·027)0·988 (0·898 to 1·087)1·004 (0·933 to 1·080)0·982 (0·923 to 1·043)
Night-time lights0·992 (0·850 to 1·157)1·026 (0·824 to 1·277)1·104 (0·913 to 1·336)0·977 (0·840 to 1·137)
Population1·000** (1·000 to 1·000)1·000* (1·000 to 1·000)1·000 (1·000 to 1·000)1·000** (1·000 to 1·000)
Area (square km)1·009** (1·001 to 1·017)1·017*** (1·005 to 1·028)1·009 (0·998 to 1·019)1·007* (0·999 to 1·015)
Mother’s education
 Primary1·257 (0·890 to 1·775)1·573 (0·904 to 2·737)1·234 (0·819 to 1·860)1·296 (0·924 to 1·817)
 Secondary1·527* (0·975 to 2·392)2·045** (1·039 to 4·028)1·503 (0·867 to 2·607)1·555** (1·001 to 2·414)
 Higher0·840 (0·181 to 3·911)2·471 (0·490 to 12·468)0·935 (0·115 to 7·616)0·835 (0·180 to 3·876)
Age of mother1·004 (0·985 to 1·023)0·996 (0·968 to 1·025)1·004 (0·981 to 1·028)0·996 (0·978 to 1·015)
Age of child0·895** (0·820 to 0·977)0·896* (0·787 to 1·019)0·973 (0·875 to 1·082)0·906** (0·832 to 0·988)
Distance from nearest Health Facility0·953 (0·889 to 1·021)0·947 (0·852 to 1·053)0·926* (0·853 to 1·006)0·953 (0·891 to 1·019)
Wealth Index
 Poorer1·311
(0·894–1·922)
1·070
(0·616–1·859)
0·970
(0·626–1·503)
1·286
(0·887–1·864)
 Middle0·990
(0·663 to 1·479)
0·724
(0·396 to 1·324)
0·667*
(0·415 to 1·073)
0·969
(0·657 to 1·429)
 Richer1.147 (0.772 to 1.704)0.786 (0.439 to 1.408)0.960 (0.612 to 1.506)1.141 (0.777 to 1.677)
 Richest1·094
(0·697 to 1·765)
0·698
(0·434 to 1·604)
0·835
(0·395 to 1·236)
1·110
(0·694 to 1·723)
Geographic classification
 Rural0·848 (0·535 to 1·342)0·568* (0·303 to 1·065)1·038 (0·573 to 1·880)0·976 (0·621 to 1·535)
Malaria Ecology Index2·606*** (1·583 to 4·290)2·319** (1·116 to 4·818)2·091** (1·141 to 3·830)2·507*** (1·538 to 4·087)
Constant0·070*** (0·021 to 0·233)0·018*** (0·003 to 0·108)0·064*** (0·015 to 0·281)0·087*** (0·027 to 0·282)
  • Reference group includes low malaria service readiness, low malaria diagnostic readiness, low malaria training readiness, no education, poorest and urban geographic location.

  • ****P<0.01, **P<0.05, *P<0.1

  • ACT, artemisinin-based combination therapy.