Table 2*†

Unadjusted and adjusted relative risks with 95% CI for the association between neonatal mortality and maternal height (cm) adjusted for maternal and other covariates

CovariatesnNeonatal (0–1 month) mortality (N=992)
UnadjustedAdjusted model 1*Adjusted model 2†
RR (95% CI)P valuesRR (95% CI)P valuesRR (95% CI)P values
Maternal covariates
Maternal height per 1 cm increase9920.968
(0.956 to 0.980)
<0.0010.973
(0.960 to 0.986)
<0.001
Maternal height categories, cm
 ≥155.01651(ref)1(ref)
 154.9–150.03081.25
(1.01 to 1.54)
1.22
(0.99 to 1.51)
 149.9–145.03281.47
(1.19 to 1.81)
1.41
(1.14 to 1.74)
 <145.01911.90
(1.46 to 2.47)
<0.0011.73
(1.31 to 2.28)
0.001
Maternal Age at birth, y
 <203731(ref)
 20–243060.70
(0.59 to 0.83)
 25–291600.58
(0.45 to 0.75)
 ≥301530.69
(0.55 to 0.85)
<0.001
Maternal Educational level
 No education2801(ref)1(ref)1(ref)
 Primary3190.91
(0.76 to 1.09)
0.85
(0.71 to 1.03)
0.85
(0.71 to 1.03)
 Secondary3570.84
(0.70 to 1.02)
0.80
(0.64 to 0.99)
0.80
(0.64 to 1.00)
 Higher360.48
(0.32 to 0.71)
0.0030.52
(0.34 to 0.79)
0.0150.52
(0.34 to 0.80)
0.018
Mother's Occupation
 Not working7921(ref)
 Working2001.12
(0.94 to 1.33)
0.225
Child Covariates
Combined birth rank and interval
 second/3rd birth rank,>2 years interval2641(ref)1(ref)1(ref)
 first birth rank4571.80
(1.48 to 2.18)
1.92
(1.56 to 2.35)
1.92
(1.56 to 2.36)
 second/3rd birth rank,<=2 years interval782.00
(1.48 to 2.69)
1.93
(1.43 to 2.59)
1.93
(1.43 to 2.60)
 fourth birth rank,>2 years interval1501.17
(0.91 to 1.49)
1.02
(0.80 to 1.29)
1.02
(0.80 to 1.29)
 fourth birth rank,<=2 years interval431.96
(1.34 to 2.86)
<0.0011.71
(1.17 to 2.48)
<0.0011.71
(1.18 to 2.49)
<0.001
Sex of the child
 Male5621(ref)1(ref)1(ref)
 Female4300.82
(0.71 to 0.95)
0.0100.83
(0.71 to 0.96)
0.0120.83
(0.71 to 0.96)
0.012
Household covariates
 Wealth Quintile
 Fifth, richest1351(ref)1(ref)1(ref)
 Fourth1881.74
(1.32 to 2.29)
1.59
(1.20 to 2.10)
1.58
(1.20 to 2.08)
 Third2001.71
(1.34 to 2.19)
1.51
(1.17 to 1.95)
1.50
(1.17 to 1.94)
 Second2211.97
(1.55 to 2.51)
1.73
(1.33 to 2.24)
1.72
(1.32 to 2.23)
 First, poorest2481.80
(1.42 to 2.29)
<0.0011.57
(1.21 to 2.04)
0.0011.56
(1.21 to 2.02)
0.001
Father's Education
 No education3681(ref)
 Primary3060.91
(0.77 to 1.08)
 Secondary2500.84
(0.68 to 1.03)
 Higher680.50
(0.37 to 0.68)
<0.001
Location of Residence
 urban2921(ref)
 rural7001.18
(1.01 to 1.39)
0.043
Region
 Barisal931(ref)
 Chittagong1710.94
(0.72 to 1.23)
 Dhaka1821.10
(0.84 to 1.45)
 Khulna1141.17
(0.88 to 1.56)
 Rajshahi1571.33
(1.02 to 1.75)
 Sylhet1631.26
(0.96 to 1.65)
 Rangpur1121.38
(1.01 to 1.88)
0.022
Time (year)
 20042701(ref)
 20072250.90
(0.74 to 1.09)
 20112770.76
(0.63 to 0.92)
 20142200.69
(0.55 to 0.86)
0.003
 Recall9920.997
(0.995 to 1.000)
0.028
  • Adjusted model for continuous maternal height.

  • Adjusted model for maternal height categories.