Table 2

Essential health package interventions at community level*

ProgrammeInterventionProviders and roles
CHN CMAHSA EHOCHVs in CHBC
Community and environmental health1. Vermin and vector control and promotionX
2. Disease surveillanceXX
3. Community health promotion and engagementXX
4. Village inspections (emergencies, health and safety)X
5. Promotion of hygiene (hand washing with soap and food safety)XX
6. Promotion of sanitation (latrine refuse, drop hole covers, solid waste disposal)XX
7. Occupational health promotion (climate change and health)XX
8. Household water quality testing and treatmentX
9. Home-based care for chronically ill patientsXX
HIV/AIDS1. HIV testing servicesXX
2. Viral load (collection of samples only)X
3. Prevention of mother-to-child transmissionX
4. Cotrimoxazole for childrenX
5. Antiretroviral treatment (all ages)X
Non-communicable diseases1. Basic psychosocial support, advice and follow-upXX
2. Antiepileptic medicationXX
3. Treatment of depression (first line)X
Tuberculosis1. First-line treatment for new tuberculosis (children)X
2. First-line treatment for retreatment tuberculosis (children)X
Malaria1. First-line uncomplicated malaria treatment (adults)X
2. First-line uncomplicated malaria treatment (children)X
3. Malaria rapid diagnostic testX
Vaccine-preventable diseases1. Rotavirus vaccine; measles rubella vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine, BCG vaccine; polio vaccine; pentavalent vaccine; human papilloma virus vaccineX
Reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health1. Distribution of insecticide-treated nets to pregnant womenXX
2. Modern family planning: injectable, contraceptive pills, male condomsXX
3. Tetanus toxoid (pregnant women)XX
4. Deworming (pregnant women)X
5. Daily iron and folic acid supplementation (pregnant women)X
6. Syphilis detection, treatment (pregnant women)X
7. Child protectionXX
Integrated community case management1. Growth monitoringX
2. Pneumonia treatment (children)X
3. Diarrhoeal diseases; oral rehydration salts, zincX
4. Malaria rapid diagnosis test (under 5)X
5. Community management of nutrition in under 5 (ie, plumpy nut, micronutrient powder and vitamin A)X
Nutrition1. Vitamin A supplementation (pregnant women)X
2. Management of severe malnutrition (children)X
3. Deworming (children)X
4. Vitamin A supplementation (6–59 months)X
Neglected tropical disease1. Schistosomiasis mass drug distributionX
2. Trachoma mass drug administrationX
  • Clinical community health team: CHN (community health nurse) and CMA (community midwife assistant). Non-clinical community health team: HSA (health surveillance assistant), SHSA (senior HSA), EHO (environmental health officer), supported with CHVs (community health volunteers). CHVs in CHBC: data from interviews, meetings and observation of activities led by CHVs in community-based/faith-based organisations, providing community home-based care (CHBC). Source: National Community Health Strategy (2017–2022), Health Sector Strategic Plan II (2017–2022) and data synthesised from a qualitative study on CHBC programmes in Phalombe district.