Table 1

Evaluation measures for girls and caregivers

OutcomeOperationalisation of measurePossible values
Girls’ outcomes
Primary outcome
Any sexual violenceReported experiencing forced sex, coerced sex or unwanted sexual touching in the last 12 months for 13–14 year-olds; reported experiencing coerced sex or unwanted sexual touching in the last 12 months for 10–12 year-olds.No=0; Yes=1
Secondary outcomes
Coerced sexReported having sex with someone because they threatened or pressured the girl by using their influence or authority in the last 12 months.No=0; Yes=1
Unwanted sexual touchingBeing touched in a sexual way without permission in the past 12 months.No=0; Yes=1
Forced sex (13–14 year-olds)Reported ever having forced sex and the most recent incident occurred within the past 12 months.No=0; Yes=1
Physical violenceBeing hit or beaten in the past 12 months.No=0; Yes=1
Emotional abuseSomeone screamed at girl loudly or aggressively in the past 12 months.No=0; Yes=1
NeglectFelt uncared for by the person who should provide care in the past 12 months.No=0; Yes=1
Child marriage (13–14 year-olds)Reported being currently married, regardless of whether or not living with spouse.No=0; Yes=1
Transactional sexual exploitationReported ever having sex with someone in exchange for money, food or gifts and this occurred in the last 12 months.No=0; Yes=1
Caregiver outcomes
Primary outcomes
Attitudes towards gender inequitable norms52 Composite score of agreement with 10 items regarding gender role statements. Examples include: ‘It is important that sons have more education than daughters’; ‘Women should leave politics to men’; ‘A good woman never questions her husband’s opinions, even if she is not sure agrees with them.’ 0−10; higher values indicate more inequitable attitudes
Attitudes towards physical discipline of children53 Composite score of caregivers’ agreement that it is ‘right’ to beat a child in 11 scenarios. Examples of scenarios include: ‘If the child runs away from home’; ‘If the child does not want to go to work’; ‘If the child steals’; ‘If the child refuses to get married.’ 0−11; higher values indicate greater acceptance of physical discipline
Parental behaviours and feelings toward s their children
Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) scale54*Caregivers rate a series of 24 statements as they relate to their girl participating in COMPASS as ‘almost always true’, ‘sometimes true’, ‘rarely true’ or ‘almost never true’. Examples include: ‘I am too busy to answer my child’s questions’; ‘I pay no attention to my child when (s)he asks for help’; ‘I forget important things my child thinks I should remember’; ‘I let me child know I love him/her.’ 0−96; higher values indicate greater rejection of children
PARQ warmth/affection subscaleScale derived from a subset of eight items from the full PARQ scale. Examples include: ‘I say nice things about my child’; ‘I make it easy for my child to confide in me’; I make my child feel wanted and needed.’ 0−32; higher values indicate greater lack of affection towards children
  • COMPASS, Creating Opportunities through Mentorship, Parental Involvement, and Safe Spaces.

  • *For cases where a caregiver had more than one girl participating in COMPASS, they were asked to consider their oldest daughter or girl participant. Cronbach’s alpha for the overall PARQ scale was 0.75 at endline. The warmth/affection subscale was the only subscale for which alpha was greater than 0.7; hence, this is the only subscale presented in this analysis.