Table 1

Prevalence of selected factors hypothesised to be associated with anaemia among children, pregnant women and non-pregnant women in India in 2006 and 2016

Anaemia driversChildren
(n=245 346)
Pregnant women
(n=37 165)
Non-pregnant women
(n=760 460)
Immediate determinants
 Women’s low BMI, %41.826.3***21.514.0***35.722.9***
 Maternal anaemia, %60.157.1***
 Child diarrhoea, %9.29.1
 Child ARI, %5.92.8***
 Women’s daily meat and fish consumption, %*
 Women’s weekly meat and fish consumption, %31.741.0***31.639.8***35.742.6***
 Women’s daily dark green vegetable consumption, %61.646.4***64.147.5***64.147.2***
Nutrition and health interventions†
 At least 4 ANC visits, %33.648.2***27.841.8***37.951.7***
 IFA consumption 100 tablets, %14.329.0***12.925.8***16.030.9***
 Deworming during pregnancy, %3.617.7***3.014.9***3.818.4***
 Weighed during pregnancy, %45.973.3***39.468.1***50.076.0***
 Paediatric full immunisation, %41.655.7***
 Paediatric vitamin A supplementation, %15.157.9***
 Paediatric IFA, %4.525.9***
 Paediatric deworming, %12.231.8***
 ICDS‡—food supplementation, %31.163.6***17.353.7***
 ICDS‡—health check-up, %20.355.4***11.044.4***
 ICDS‡—health and nutrition education, %21.654.5***8.538.6***
 Using bednet, %41.339.1*41.237.6**38.634.3***
Underlying determinants
 Household size, n6.76.4***6.05.7***5.95.6***
 No. of children <5 years, n1.
 Household SES index, n3.95.7***3.55.3***4.05.6***
 Improved sanitation facilities, %22.340.1***22.142.1***31.750.3***
 Safe stool disposal, %18.634.2***14.530.8***21.036.1***
 Scheduled caste/tribe, %71.476.5***71.476.5***66.873.2***
 Hindu religion, %78.778.478.877.381.280.5
 Muslim religion, %16.616.717.217.613.013.8
 Rural, %76.172.5**76.672.6**68.466.2
 Maternal schooling, years4.06.3***4.47.2***5.06.8***
 Mothers with no schooling, %50.030.7***46.625.0***40.628.0***
 Mothers with ≥10 years of schooling, %16.030.3***17.736.2***21.935.2***
 Married before 18 years, %60.938.9***56.632.6***60.845.3***
 Maternal age, years26.727.2***23.524.3***29.430.2***
Other factors
 Male child, %52.952.2*
 Child aged 6–23 months, %32.632.9
 Child aged 24–59 months, %67.467.1
  • Significant changes from 2006 to 2016 were tested using the Wald test from linear regression models, adjusted for sampling weights: ***p<0.001, **p<0.01, *p<0.05.

  • †Variables related to the most recent pregnancy.

  • ‡ICDS—food supplementation, health check-up, and health and nutrition counselling in children model includes any of the services during pregnancy, lactation or during early childhood.

  • ANC, antenatal care; ARI, acute respiratory infection; BMI, Body Mass Index; ICDS, Integrated Child Development Services; IFA, iron and folic acid; SES, social economic status.