Table 3

Examples of different item wordings for four item groups

Item group 79: GesturesMDATLanguageIndicates by gesture to say ‘No’This requires definite shaking of head or shrugging of shoulders, etc, in showing refusal. Not just turning away from the situation or withdrawing. If not observed, ask mother.
ASQExpressive languageShakes headDoes your baby shake his head when he means ‘no’ or ‘yes’?
DMCLanguageUses gestures to communicateAsk the mother: When your child wants to show you something, what does he/she do? When your child wants something, how does he/she tell you? When your child wants you to come to him/her, what does he/she do? Does he/she use any gestures to communicate to you? Yes: The child uses gestures to communicate, for example, pointing to show you something, extending arm to show you something he/she is holding, gesturing to communicate ‘come here.’ No: The child does not use gestures to communicate. The child only cries when he/she wants something.
Item group 18: Copy circleMDATFine motorCopies a circleDraw a circle, explaining to the child what you are doing. ‘See how I am drawing a circle?’ Show the child the circle and ask him/her to make one just like yours. ‘Now can you draw a circle like mine?’ You can allow up to three trials for the child to make a circle. Score YES for any nearly complete or complete circle.
KDIFine motorCan imitate a circleCan imitate a circle
Item group 17: ScribblesMDATFine motorScribbles on paper (straight scribble)Put a piece of paper in front of the child and put the pen/pencil in the child’s hand. Say, ‘Go ahead and draw a picture.’ Can demonstrate: The child must make purposeful marks on the paper, more than just slight marks on the paper, in a back and forth manner. Score NO if child stabs paper with pen/pencil.
SBECDSMotorDoes the child make a mark on paper with a pen or pencil, or in the dirt with a stick?NA: caregiver reported
KDIFine motorCan scribble using a penCan scribble using a pen
DMCFine motorScribbles with a penYes: The child uses a pen to make any kind of mark on paper. No: The child is not able to make any mark on paper using a pen.
BSID IIIFine motorScribbles spontaneouslyScore: Child spontaneously and purposely scribbles on the paper.
Item group 129: Too ill to playSBECDSMotorIs the child frequently too sick to play?NA: caregiver reported
PRIDIHealth and developmentDoes (name) at times feel too sick to play?NA: caregiver reported
  • ASQ, Ages and Stages Questionnaires; BSID III, Bayley Scales of Infant Development III; DMC, Developmental Milestones Checklist; KDI, Kilifi Developmental Inventory; MDAT, Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool; NA, not applicable; PRIDI, Regional Project on Child Development Indicators; SBECDS, Saving Brains Early Childhood Development Scale.