Table 1

Crude and adjusted linear regression coefficient and relative 95% CI of factors potentially associated with male or female child mortality rates (MCMR or FCMR) and M:F under-five mortality ratio (U5MSR)

NMCMR*†
coefficient (95% CI)
FCMR*†
coefficient (95% CI)
U5MSR†
coefficient (95% CI)
Excess female mortality coefficient (95% CI)
U5MSR
 Mean (SD)1.20 (0.07)
 Median (IQR)1.20 (1.17 to 1.23)
Excess female mortality
 Mean (SD)−0.60 (1.60)
 Mean (IQR)0 (−0.30 to 3.00)
GII
 Mean (SD)0.36 (0.19)
 Median (IQR)0.37 (0.18 to 0.51)
Crude regression models
 GII 20151565.28 (4.89 to 5.68)‡5.37 (4.98 to 5.76)‡−0.09 (-0.15 to –0.04)‡0.20 (−1.38 to 1.42)
 Acute respiratory infections*†1940.60 (0.57 to 0.63)‡0.60 (0.58 to 0.63)‡−0.004 (-0.001 to 0.001)−0.08 (−0.21 to 0.05)
 Diarrhoea*†1940.43 (0.40 to 0.46)‡0.43 (0.40 to 0.47)‡−0.004 (-0.008 to –3.5×10–4−0.06 (−0.16 to 0.04)
 GDP-per capita*185−0.69 (-0.74 to –0.63)‡−0.69 (-0.75 to –0.64)‡0.007 (1.2×10–5 to 0.01)§0.10 (−0.07 to 0.27)
 Proportion of population accessing at least basic sanitation*192−1.34 (−1.52 to –1.17)‡−1.37 (-1.54 to –1.19)‡0.03 (0.01 to 0.04)‡0.32 (−0.06 to 0.70)
 Proportion of births attended by skilled personnel*180−1.87 (−2.21 to –1.54)‡−1.92 (−2.26 to –1.59)‡0.06 (0.03 to 0.09)‡0.11 (−0.57 to 0.80)
Multivariable regression mode
 GII 20151401.49 (0.95 to 2.02)‡1.75 (1.21 to 2.29)‡−0.29 (−0.42 to –0.16)‡3.25 (−0.28 to 6.78)
 Acute respiratory infections*†1400.30 (0.22 to 0.37)‡0.27 (0.20 to 0.35)‡003 (0.01 to 0.05)§−2.24 (−0.73 to 0.24)
 Diarrhoea*†1400.07 (0.02/0.11)§0.06 (0.02/0.11)§5.9×10–5 (−0.01/0.01)−0.01 (−0.42 to 0.46)
 GDP per capita*140−0.08 (−0.14 to –0.01)§−0.07 (−0.14 to –0.01)§−0.005 (−0.02 to 0.01)0.10 (−0.42 to 0.45)
 Proportion of population accessing at least basic sanitation*140−0.16 (−0.29 to 0.04)§−0.17 (−0.30. to –0.04)§0.01 (−0.02 to 0.05)0.90 (0.05 to 1.75)§
 Proportion of births attended by skilled personnel*140−0.05 (−0.30 to 0.19)−0.09 (−0.34 to 0.16)0.05 (−0.01 to 0.11)−0.79 (−2.41 to 0.83)
  • *Log-transformed values.

  • †Refers to under-five mortality rates per 1000 live births.

  • ‡P values ≤0.001.

  • §P values≤0.005 and >0.001.

  • GDP, Gross Domestic Product; GII, Gender Inequality Index; FCMR, female child mortality rate; MCMR,male child mortality rate; U5SR, under-five mortality sex ratio.