Table 3

Example of information that can be collected to evaluate the impact of medication adherence technologies on treatment outcomes

OutcomePotential definitions
Medication adherence (ie, dosing implementation and persistence on therapy)Proportion of all expected doses that were missed during the full treatment course* (continuous outcome)
Proportion of patient months with >X%† of expected doses missed (continuous outcome)
Proportion of patients who completed therapy with <X% of expected doses missed over the full treatment course (binary outcome)†
Treatment interruptionsProportion of patients who completely interrupt tuberculosis (TB) therapy for a short time period (eg, >1 month) or who are formally lost to follow-up (eg, >2 months) (binary outcome)
Treatment successProportion of patients who achieved cure or treatment completion (binary outcome)
Proportion of patients who achieved cure or treatment completion without extension of treatment duration due to non-adherence (binary outcome)
Mean or median number of medication refills per patient as a proxy of months of treatment completed (continuous outcome)
Post-treatment tuberculosis recurrence-free survivalProportion of patients who complete TB therapy and achieve 1-year recurrence-free survival (binary outcome)‡§
  • *An ‘ideal’ length of therapy could be used for assessing the number of expected and missed doses—for example, 182 expected treatment days for patients on daily therapy for drug-susceptible TB (see online supplementary appendix 1).

  • †Threshold of the percentage of expected doses missed can vary depending on baseline rates of adherence (eg, greater than or less than 10%, 20%, etc).

  • ‡That is, patients who achieve treatment completion and do not experience post-treatment TB recurrence or death.

  • §Follow-up times can vary, though we recommend a minimum of 6 months of post-treatment follow-up.