Table 4

Examples of cost data that should be collected for an evaluation of digital adherence technology-based tuberculosis care delivery

Material costsCommunication costsPersonnel costsPatient-related costs
  • Devices if provided to the patient (digital pillboxes, feature phones or smartphones)

  • Platforms for visualising dosing histories by healthcare providers (computers, smartphones)

  • Data servers

  • Medication envelopes (for 99DOTS)

  • Ingestible sensors

  • SMS text costs

  • Direct phone calls to patients (including call centres for some strategies)

  • Video communication/internet costs

  • Costs of new personnel for managing information technology or other tasks such as packing medications blister packs in envelopes (for 99DOTS)

  • Cost of new counsellors or other providers in some settings to facilitate more intensive management of barriers to adherence (eg, treatment literacy, depression counselling, treatment of alcohol use disorder) in differentiated care models

  • Changes in resource or time use by existing healthcare personnel due to decreased time spent in direct observation, reduced travel costs with elimination of home DOT, or increased time spent on troubleshooting DATs or managing data entry

  • Potentially reduced costs of travel and decreased time spent on visiting healthcare facilities for direct observation (under facility-based DOT)

  • Potential time saved by not having wait for a healthcare provider to visit (under home DOT)

  • DAT, digital adherence technology; DOT, directly observed therapy; SMS, short messaging service.