Table 2

Effect of a 1-month increase in length of paid maternity leave policy on the prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding among children born in the last 24 months

Model 1 (n=397 406)Model 2 (n=387 288)Model 3 (n=387 288)
Exposure
One-month increase in length of paid maternity leave policy8.87 (4.94 to 12.80)8.09 (4.49 to 11.68)7.40 (3.15 to 11.65)
Household-level and individual-level covariates
Number of listed household members−0.05 (−0.27 to 0.17)−0.06 (−0.27 to 0.16)
 Household wealth
  PoorestRefRef
  Poorer0.40 (−0.79 to 1.59)0.42 (−0.78 to 1.62)
  Middle0.49 (−1.36 to 2.34)0.50 (−1.35 to 2.35)
  Richer1.52 (−0.87 to 3.92)1.52 (−0.87 to 3.90)
  Richest1.85 (−0.84 to 4.54)1.81 (−0.86 to 4.48)
 Place of residence
  UrbanRefRef
  Rural0.29 (−1.11 to 1.69)0.26 (−1.21 to 1.73)
 Mother’s age at childbirth (years)−0.08 (−0.26 to 0.10)−0.08 (−0.26 to 0.10)
 Mother’s number of living children2.79 (2.05 to 3.53)2.74 (1.99 to 3.50)
 Maternal education
  No educationRefRef
  Incomplete primary1.21 (−1.30 to 3.73)1.15 (−1.33 to 3.63)
  Complete primary3.99 (0.91 to 7.06)4.04 (1.04 to 7.04)
  Incomplete secondary1.59 (−1.47 to 4.64)1.65 (−1.32 to 4.62)
  Complete secondary−1.49 (−5.59 to 2.62)−1.38 (−5.36 to 2.59)
  Higher−5.79 (−11.19 to –0.39)−5.58 (−10.86 to −0.30)
 Mother’s current marital status
  Never in unionRefRef
  Married2.39 (0.67 to 4.10)2.49 (0.74 to 4.23)
  Living with partner3.01 (1.33 to 4.68)3.01 (1.33 to 4.68)
  Separated/divorced/widowed1.84 (0.38 to 3.30)1.96 (0.50 to 3.42)
 Mother worked in the last 12 months
  Did not workRefRef
  Worked in the past year−3.99 (−6.37 to −1.61)−4.30 (−6.47 to –2.13)
  Currently working−2.36 (−4.02 to −0.70)−2.38 (−3.99 to –0.77)
  Have a job, but on leave last 7 days−9.08 (−11.88 to −6.28)−10.35 (−14.13 to −6.56)
 Child’s birth order−1.47 (−2.02 to −0.91)−1.42 (−1.95 to −0.89)
 Child’s sex
  MaleRefRef
  Female1.23 (0.69 to 1.76)1.23 (0.69 to 1.77)
Country-level covariates
 Gross domestic product per capita1.88 (−0.63 to 4.39)
Health expenditure per capita−0.62 (−1.48 to 0.23)
Percentage of females aged 15–64 participating in the labour force0.00 (0.00 to 0.00)
Unemployment female (percentage of female labour force)0.43 (−0.23 to 1.08)
  • Reported estimates are marginal effects at the means, which were multiplied by 100 in order to be interpreted as the percentage point difference in prevalence.

  • The 95% CIs are in parentheses.

  • Model 1 includes country and year fixed effects.

  • Model 2 additionally controlled for measured individual and household characteristics.

  • Model 3 additionally controlled for country-level characteristics.