Table 3

Multilevel logistic regression analysis of factors associated with the CoC achievement (n=1401)

Achieved visit-based CoCAchieved services-based CoC
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)
Fixed effect
Socioeconomic characteristics
  Age (years)
  ≥190.91 (0.37 to 2.22)0.90 (0.37 to 2.20)0.42 (0.15 to 1.17)0.41 (0.15 to 1.14)
  20–291111
  30–390.85 (0.47 to 1.52)0.89 (0.49 to 1.60)1.17 (0.70 to 1.95)1.11 (0.66 to 1.88)
  ≤400.54 (0.19 to 1.55)0.59 (0.20 to 1.73)0.94 (0.36 to 2.40)0.87 (0.33 to 2.28)
 Educational level
  None1111
  Primary0.56 (0.30 to 1.06)0.56 (0.29 to 1.05)0.98 (0.55 to 1.74)0.89 (0.50 to 1.60)
  Lower secondary1.06 (0.59 to 1.89)1.03 (0.58 to 1.85)1.85* (1.07 to 3.20)1.66 (0.95 to 2.91)
  Upper secondary or above0.91 (0.40 to 2.05)0.90 (0.39 to 2.05)2.69** (1.32 to 5.51)2.47* (1.19 to 5.14)
 Number of pregnancies
  One1111
  Two0.76 (0.41 to 1.43)0.8 (0.43 to 1.51)1.06 (0.59 to 1.87)1.10 (0.61 to 1.96)
  Three0.73 (0.35 to 1.54)0.72 (0.34 to 1.52)1.85 (0.97 to 3.53)1.87 (0.97 to 3.63)
  Four or more1.20 (0.54 to 2.66)1.16 (0.52 to 2.61)1.84 (0.88 to 3.88)1.98 (0.93 to 4.25)
 Religion
  Christian1111
  Muslim0.67 (0.27 to 1.63)0.69 (0.28 to 1.70)0.51 (0.20 to 1.29)0.50 (0.20 to 1.27)
  Traditional and others2.60* (1.33 to 5.11)2.71** (1.37 to 5.35)2.72** (1.44 to 5.13)2.64** (1.40 to 5.00)
  NA3.66* (1.15 to 11.7)4.17* (1.28 to 13.6)3.68* (1.29 to 10.49)3.74* (1.30 to 10.81)
 Marriage
  Married1111
  Cohabitating0.51* (0.26 to 0.98)0.49* (0.25 to 0.97)1.1 (0.61 to 2.00)1.12 (0.61 to 2.06)
  Unmarried, widowed, divorced or separated0.54 (0.23 to 1.28)0.48 (0.20 to 1.17)1.42 (0.68 to 2.97)1.43 (0.67 to 3.08)
 Partner’s age
  ≥290.81 (0.44 to 1.51)0.77 (0.41 to 1.44)1.35 (0.79 to 2.29)1.35 (0.78 to 2.32)
  30–391111
  ≤401.19 (0.65 to 2.19)1.22 (0.66 to 2.25)0.91 (0.52 to 1.58)0.94 (0.54 to 1.64)
  Unknown or NA0.52 (0.26 to 1.08)0.53 (0.26 to 1.08)0.43* (0.21 to 0.85)0.42* (0.21 to 0.83)
 Partner’s education
  None1111
  Primary0.67 (0.31 to 1.44)0.69 (0.32 to 1.49)0.91 (0.48 to 1.74)0.93 (0.49 to 1.80)
  Lower secondary0.97 (0.52 to 1.82)1.06 (0.56 to 2.01)0.92 (0.52 to 1.65)0.92 (0.51 to 1.67)
  Upper secondary or above1.08 (0.55 to 2.11)1.19 (0.60 to 2.34)0.86 (0.46 to 1.61)0.83 (0.44 to 1.57)
  Unknown or NA1.28 (0.47 to 3.48)1.51 (0.55 to 4.18)1.12 (0.44 to 2.90)1.03 (0.39 to 2.73)
 No. of children aged under 5 years0.87 (0.72 to 1.04)0.87 (0.73 to 1.05)0.95 (0.81 to 1.12)0.92 (0.78 to 1.09)
 Socioeconomic status*1.47* (1.07 to 2.02)1.50* (1.09 to 2.07)1.44* (1.08 to 1.92)1.41* (1.05 to 1.89)
Factors during the latest pregnancy
 Intended pregnancy
  Unwanted11
  Intended1.38 (0.46 to 4.14)0.86 (0.38 to 1.65)
  Mistimed2.65 (0.89 to 7.84)0.93 (0.41 to 1.80)
 Money prepared for delivery0.93 (0.58 to 1.50)1.48* (1.03 to 2.26)
 Held health insurance card1.12 (0.72 to 1.73)1.49 (0.84 to 1.86)
 Received support from household member during and after delivery1.06 (0.60 to 1.87)1.11 (0.71 to 1.88)
 Any complications for women during pregnancy, delivery or post-delivery1.33 (0.86 to 2.06)0.59** (0.44 to 0.92)
 Any complications for child0.95 (0.56 to 1.60)0.91 (0.66 to 1.67)
Random effect VarSEVarSEVarSEVarSEVarSEVarSE
 Area0.5030.2620.1560.0120.1180.1080.9270.4630.3280.2110.3040.209
ICCSEICCSEICCSEICCSEICCSEICCSE
 Residual ICC0.1330.0600.0450.0330.0350.0310.2200.0860.0910.0530.0850.053
  • *Significant at 5% level, **Significant at 1% level.

  • *Standardised z-score based on factor analysis using the following variables: availability of electric power, availability of clean toilet, house roof material, ownership of refrigerator, availability of clean water, ownership of TV, ownership of radio and ownership of mobile phone.

  • AOR, adjusted OR; CoC, continuum of care; ICC, intraclass correlation coefficient; NA, not available; Var, variance.