Table 3

Standardised parameter estimates for indirect effects in tested models†‡

PredictorMediatorsOutcomeTotal indirect
Non-diarrhoeal stools
 Full sampleIllnessHaemoglobinCognitive score −0.03***
Non-diarrhoeal pathogen detectionHaemoglobin, illnessCognitive score −0.04***
B vitamin intake§Non-diarrhoeal pathogen detection, illnessCognitive score 0.05***
 Lower weightIllnessHaemoglobinCognitive score −0.04***
Non-diarrhoeal pathogen detectionHaemoglobin, illnessCognitive score −0.05***
B vitamin intake§Non-diarrhoeal pathogen detection, illnessCognitive score 0.04***
 Higher weightIllnessHaemoglobinCognitive score −0.04*
Non-diarrhoeal pathogen detectionCognitive score−0.01
B vitamin intake§Non-diarrhoeal pathogen detection, illnessCognitive score 0.05**
Diarrhoeal stools
 Full sampleIllnessHaemoglobinCognitive score −0.03***
Diarrhoeal pathogen detectionHaemoglobin, illnessCognitive score −0.04***
B vitamin intake§Diarrhoeal pathogen detection, illnessCognitive score 0.04***
 Lower weightIllnessHaemoglobinCognitive score −0.04**
Diarrhoeal pathogen detectionHaemoglobin, illnessCognitive score −0.06***
B vitamin intake§Cognitive score0.02
 Higher weightIllnessHaemoglobinCognitive score −0.04*
Diarrhoeal pathogen detectionHaemoglobin, illnessCognitive score −0.04**
B vitamin intake§Diarrhoeal pathogen detection, illnessCognitive score 0.05*
  • ***P<0.001, **p<0.01, *p<0.05. Statistically significant relationships are in bold.

  • †Parameter estimates (ie, relationships between variables) are often much smaller in structural equation model analyses than in linear regression analyses because so many variables are accounted for. However, small relationships can be meaningful, especially when multiple paths of influence are involved.

  • ‡Number of children included in model by site:

  • Full sample model: BGD=184; BRF=128; INV=227; PKN=197; PEL=242; SAV=195.

  • Lower and higher weight models: BGD=61; BRF=43; INV=76; PKN=66; PEL=81; SAV=65.

  • §Comprised the average vitamin B6 and the average folate intakes (as two separate variables) from 9 to 24 months.

  • BGD, Bangladesh; BRF, Brazil; INV, India; PEL, Peru; PKN, Pakistan; SAV, South Africa.