Nn%Nn%Nn %
Obese (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2)38114337.538114036.837414037.4
Taking any medication3889223.73867619.73847619.8
HIV positive3889524.53867920.53847920.6
Labour was induced388225.7386184.7384215.5
Labour augmentation*
 Labour augmentation in first stage387256.5386246.2384236.0
 Labour augmentation in second stage387235.9385123.1384102.6
Analgesia*
 None38624964.538625766.638324062.7
 Epidural38630.838620.538300.0
 Spinal†38600.038600.038300.0
 Epidural/spinal†38600.038600.038300.0
 Injectable analgesic38613434.738612732.938314337.3
  • *Prior to randomisation.

  • †All 15 cases where spinal or epidural/spinal was used were women who delivered by caesarean section (CS).

  • BMI, body mass index; GAP, gentle assisted pushing.