Table 3

Birth outcomes

Routine practice
n=384
Upright position
n=386
GAP in upright position
n=388
Nn%Nn%Nn%
Final mode of birth
 Spontaneous cephalic38436795.638637196.138837496.4
 Vaginal breech38400.038600.038800.0
 Vacuum or forceps38441.038641.038861.5
 Caesarean section384133.4386112.938882.1
Reasons for operative birth
 Poor progress17423.515640.014535.7
 Fetal distress1715.91516.71417.1
 Other171270.615853.314857.1
  • GAP, gentle assisted pushing.