Table 4

Multivariate regression of the associations between the experience of emotional and physical violence in childhood and risk factors for boys

FactorsEmotional violencePhysical violence
UnadjustedModel 1Model 2UnadjustedModel 1Model 2
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Emotional abuse <131.707 (0.889 to 3.276)1.594 (0.829 to 3.064)
Paternal orphanhood <131.353 (0.976 to 1.877) 1.358* (0.976 to 1.890) 1.331* (0.959 to 1.848)
People in the community can be trusted (ref: strongly disagree/disagree)
Strongly agree/agree
0.961 (0.689 to 1.343)0.996 (0.712 to 1.393)0.812 (0.606 to 1.088) 0.741* (0.548 to 1.003) 0.707** (0.528 to 0.946)
Feel safe and secure in the community
(ref: strongly disagree/disagree)
Strongly agree/agree
0.618* (0.424 to 0.902) 0.639** (0.439 to 0.932) 0.619*** (0.440 to 0.869)
Can talk to family about things important to me (ref: strongly disagree/disagree)
Strongly agree/agree
0.635 (0.397 to 1.013) 0.604** (0.378 to 0.966) 0.531*** (0.341 to 0.826)
My family cares a lot about me
(ref: strongly disagree/disagree)
Strongly agree/agree
0.638 (0.333 to 1.221)0.623 (0.317 to 1.225)
Close to students at my school
(ref: strongly disagree/disagree)
Strongly agree/agree
0.556 (0.210 to 1.469)0.566 (0.213 to 1.502)
Teachers care about me (ref: strongly disagree/disagree)
Strongly agree/agree
0.482* (0.267 to 0.870) 0.463*** (0.258 to 0.830) 0.458*** (0.258 to 0.814) 0.361*** (0.208 to 0.628) 0.369*** (0.213 to 0.641) 0.380*** (0.217 to 0.665)
I have friends I can talk to about important things (ref: strongly disagree/disagree)
Strongly agree/agree
1.739** (1.166 to 2.594) 1.789*** (1.184 to 2.704) 1.543** (1.045 to 2.280)
I have friends I can count on for support (ref: strongly disagree/disagree)
Strongly agree/agree
0.842 (0.564 to 1.256)0.853 (0.573 to 1.271)
Illness of an adult in the home1.386 (0.950 to 2.021) 1.486** (1.012 to 2.183) 1.536** (1.045 to 2.256)
Relationship with mother (ref: no relationship)
Extremely/quite close0.459 (0.194 to 1.088)0.470* (0.196 to 1.128)0.451* (0.190 to 1.073)
Somewhat or not close0.714 (0.261 to 1.954)0.767 (0.282 to 2.089)0.830 (0.308 to 2.242)
Relationship with father (ref: no relationship)
Extremely/quite close0.625 (0.369 to 1.059)0.680 (0.398 to 1.163)
Somewhat or not close1 (0.526 to 1.900)1.084 (0.566 to 2.077)
SES (ref: fifth)
 First quintile0.703 (0.434 to 1.137)0.695 (0.430 to 1.124) 2.248***  (1.426 to 3.545) 2.193** (1.419 to 3.388)
 Second quintile0.839 (0.536 to 1.313)0.856 (0.551 to 1.331) 1.504* (0.976 to 2.319) 1.524**  (1.006 to 2.308)
 Third quintile1.040 (0.663 to 1.633)1.069 (0.687 to 1.661) 1.890***  (1.212 to 2.947) 1.829***  (1.199 to 2.790)
 Fourth quintile0.955 (0.605 to 1.507)0.975 (0.622 to 1.530) 1.536*  (0.998 to 2.365) 1.505*  (0.990 to 2.288)
Age
 13–14 0.417***
(0.269 to 0.648)
0.425***
( 0.274 to 0.660)
1.153
(0.747 to 1.780)
1.128
(0.743 to 1.711)
 15–160.846
(0.553 to 1.293)
0.834
(0.547 to 1.271)
1.028
(0.674 to 1.568)
0.970
(0.649 to 1.451)
 17–18 (ref)
 19–20 0.655*
(0.400 to 1.071)
0.663*
(0.409 to 1.075)
1.032
(0.632 to 1.685)
0.968
(0.604 to 1.551)
 21–220.742
(0.434 to 1.268)
0.743
(0.438 to 1.261)
0.832
(0.494 to 1.400)
0.797
(0.484 to 1.315)
 23–240.932
(0.547 to 1.588)
0.935
(0.554 to 1.580)
0.742
(0.427 to 1.289)
0.685
(0.405 to 1.160)
  • *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001, controlled for age and SES.

  • Ref, reference; SES, socioeconomic status.

  • Bolded text indicates the result was significant.