Table 1

Hospital and study descriptors

Hospital descriptors, n(%)Academic hospital821 (83.4%)
District or community hospital67 (6.8%)
Mixed hospital types74 (7.5%)
Other23 (2.4%)
Hospital locationUrban884 (89.7%)
Rural25 (2.5%)
Mixed locations76 (7.7%)
Study designRetrospective685 (69.5%)
Prospective266 (27.0%)
Ambispective34 (3.5%)
Audit711 (72.2%)
Non-randomised cohort225 (22.8%)
Case–control24 (2.4%)
Randomised controlled 
trial
25 (2.5%)
UrgencyPlanned292 (29.6%)
Emergent415 (42.1%)
Mixed338 (34.3%)
  • ‘Other’ hospital types include facilities run by Médecins Sans Frontières. ‘Planned’ and ‘Emergent’ rows include studies providing mortality stratified on urgency and therefore totals exceed 100%.